PL EN


2015 | 61 | 7-12
Article title

Między Bliskim Wschodem a Grecją – pieniądz w okresie archaicznym

Content
Title variants
EN
Between the Near East and Greece – currency in the Archaic period
Languages of publication
PL
Abstracts
PL
Znaleziska srebrnych skarbów z terenu Lewantu, datowanych na okres między X a VI w. p.n.e. dostarczyły interesującej perspektywy w rozważaniach nad początkami monety greckiej. Przeprowadzone badania metalograficzne wykazały, że przynajmniej jeden ze wspomnianych skarbów został wytworzony ze srebra pochodzącego z Laurion, Sifnos i Chalkidiki. Przybicie stempla na fragmencie metalu o określonej masie, ustanowione około 600 r. p.n.e. w cywilizacyjnym tyglu reprezentowanym przez położone w zachodniej części Azji Mniejszej greckie państwa – miasta i królestwo Lidii, dopełnia ekonomicznego obrazu świata, w którym ważenie metalu było stałą i doskonale poznaną praktyką. Fundamentalna różnica tkwiła jednak w greckich poszukiwaniach nowych form rządzenia i administracji. Pieniądz w postaci monety wypełnił bowiem tak symboliczne jak i funkcjonalne potrzeby polis jako instytucji i jej mieszkańców.
EN
As early as the third millennium BC, silver began to play the role of a privileged commodity and as reserve of value in Egypt and in the kingdoms of the Near East. In the second millennium and increasingly in the first millennium, silver was used not only as a reserve and measure of value but, what is more significant as an instrument of payment. Whether archaeological or textual, the evidence from the Mesopotamian states and from the Levant shows that silver was increasingly used as a monetary instrument at that time. The so-called Hacksilber is found in more than thirty hoards in the Levant in the Iron Age Period. This can partly demonstrate that the fundamental concepts of money were established in the Near East long before the Greeks and the Lydians adapted them and, above all, transformed these into the form of coin, in the 6th century. This great transformation, as well as the vast historical question of the emergence of coinage was directly related to the evolution of institutions bound up with the emergence of the polis.
Year
Volume
61
Pages
7-12
Physical description
Dates
published
2015
Contributors
References
  • Austin M. M. i Vidal-Naquet P. 1977. Economic and Social History of Ancient Greece. An Introduction. London.
  • Balmuth M. 1967. The monetary forerunners of coinage in Phoenicia and Palestine. W: A. Kindler (ed.), Proceedings of the International Numismatic Convention, Jerusalem, 27-31 December, 1963. Tel Aviv, 25-32.
  • Balmuth M. 1975. The critical moment: the transition from currency to coinage in the eastern Mediterranean. “World Archaeology” 6. 3, 293-298.
  • Balmuth M. 2001. (ed.), Hacksilber to Coinage: New Insights into the Monetary History of the Near East and Greece. New York [Numismatic Studies no. 24].
  • Bresson A. 2006. The origin of Lydian and Greek coinage: cost and quantity [3rd International Conference of Ancient History, Fudan University, Shanghai, 17-21.08.2005]. “Historical Research” 5, 149-165 (in Chinese translation).
  • Bresson A. 2015. The Making of the Ancient Greek Economy: Institutions, Markets, and Growth in the City States. Princeton.
  • Cartledge P., Cohen E., Foxhall L. (eds.) 2001. Money, Labour and Land. Approaches to the Economics of Ancient Greece. London.
  • Gernet L. 2011. O symbolice politycznej: ognisko publiczne. W: W. Lengauer, P. Majewski, L. Trzcionkowski (eds.) Antropologia antyku greckiego. Zagadnienia i wybór tekstów. Warszawa, 114-126.
  • Gitin S. 1995. Tel Miqne-Ekron in the 7th century BCE: the impact of economic innovation and foreign cultural influences on a Neo-Assyrian vassal city-state. W: S. Gitin (ed.), Recent Excavations in Israel: a View to the West (Dubuque: Archaeological Institute of America, Colloquia and Conference Papers No.1), 61-71.
  • Gitin S. i Golani A. 2001. The Tel Miqne-Ekron silver hoards: the Assyrian and Phoenician Connections. W: M. Balmuth (ed.) 2001, 27-48.
  • Golani A. i Sass B. 1998. Three seventh-century BCE hoards of silver jewelry from Tel Miqne-Ekron. “Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research” 311, 57-81.
  • Harris W. (ed.) 2008. The Monetary Systems of the Greeks and Romans. Oxford.
  • Howgego Ch. 1990. Why did ancient states strike coins. “Numismatic Chronicle” 150, 1-25.
  • Howgego Ch. 1995. Ancient History from Coins. London.
  • Jursa M. 2010. Aspects of the Economic History of Babylonia in the First Millennium BC. Economic Geography, Economic Mentalities, Agriculture, the Use of Money and the Problem of Economic Growth. Münster.
  • Kim H. 2001a. Small change and moneyed economy. W: P. Cartledge, E. Cohen, L. Foxhall (eds.) 2001, 44-51.
  • Kim H. 2001b. Archaic coinage as evidence for the use of money. W: A. Meadows, K. Shipton (eds.) 2001, 7-22.
  • Kletter R. 2003. Iron Age Hoards of Precious Metals in Palestine – an “Underground” Econony? “Levant” 5, 139-152.
  • Kletter R. 2004. Coinage before coins? A Response. “Levant” 36, 207-210.
  • Kletter R. i Brand E. 1998. A new look at the Iron Age silver hoard from Eshtemoa. “Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins” 114. 2, 139-54.
  • Kraay C. 1976. Archaic and Classical Greek Coins. London.
  • Kroll J. 1998. Silver in Solon’s laws. W: R. Ashton i S. Hurter (eds.), Studies in Greek Numismatics in Memory of Martin Jessop Price. London.
  • Kroll J. 2000. Review of Leslie Kurke’s Coins, Bodies, Games and Gold: the Politics of Meaning in Archaic Greece. “Classical Journal” 96 (1), 85-90.
  • Kroll J. 2001. Observations on monetary instruments in pre-coinage Greece. W: M. Balmuth (ed.) 2001, 77-91.
  • Kroll J. 2008. The Monetary uses of weighed bullion in Archaic Greece. W: W. Harris (ed.) 2008, 12-37.
  • Kurke L. 1991. The Traffic in Praise. Pindar and the Poetics of Social Economy. Ithaca and London.
  • Kurke L. 1999. Coins, Bodies, Games and Gold: the Politics of Meaning in Archaic Greece. Princeton.
  • Le Rider G. 2001. La naissance de la monnaie, pratiques monétaires de l’Orient ancien. Paris.
  • Le Rider G. 2003. Alexandre le Grande. Monnaie, finances et politique. Paris.
  • Mielczarek M. 2006. Mennictwo starożytnej Grecji. Mennictwo okresów archaicznego i klasycznego. Warszawa – Kraków.
  • Meadows A. i Shipton K. 2001. (eds.), Money and its Uses in the Ancient Greek World. Oxford.
  • Nicolet-Pierre H. 2002. Numismatique grecque. Paris.
  • Peacock M. 2006. The origins of money in Ancient Greece: the political economy of coinage and exchange. “Cambridge Journal of Economics” 30, 637-650.
  • Picard O. 1984. Sur deux termes des inscriptions de la tresorerie d’Ai Khanoum. W: Hommages a Lucien Lerat, vol. 2. Paris, 679-690.
  • Rafel N., Montero I., Castanyer P., Aquilue X., Armada X., Belarte M., Fairen S., Gasull P., Gener M., Graells R., Hunt M., Martín A., Mata J., Morell N., Pérez A., Pons E., Renzi M., Rovira M., Rovira S., Santos M., Tremoleda J., Villalba P. 2010. New approaches on the Archaic trade in the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula: exploitation and circulation of lead and silver. “Oxford Journal of Archaeology” 29. 2, 175-202.
  • Reden von S. 1997. Money, law and exchange: coinage in the Greek polis. “Journal of Hellenic Studies” 117, 154-76.
  • Reden von S. 1999. Reevaluating Gernet. Value and Greek myth. W: Buxton, (ed.), From Myth to Reason? Studies in the Development of Greek Thought. Oxford, 51-70.
  • Reden von S. 2002. Money in the ancient economy: a survey of recent research. “Klio” 84, 141-174.
  • Reden von S. 2010. Money in Classical Antiquity. Cambridge.
  • Schaps D. 2004. The Invention of Coinage and the Monetization of Ancient Greece. Ann Arbor.
  • Seaford R. 1994. Reciprocity and Ritual: Homer and Tragedy in the Developing City State. Oxford.
  • Seaford R. 2004. Money and the Early Greek Mind. Cambridge.
  • Sherratt S. i Sherratt A. 1993. The growth of the Mediterranean economy in the early first millennium BCE. “World Archaeology” 24. 3, 361-378.
  • Stern E. 1998. Buried treasure, the silver hoard from Dor. “Biblical Archaeology Review” 24. 4, 46-62.
  • Stern E. 2001. The silver hoard from Tel Dor. W: M. Balmuth (ed.) 2001, 19-26.
  • Stos-Gale Z. 2001. The impact of the natural sciences on studies of Hacksilber and early silver coinage. W: M. Balmuth (ed.) 2001, 53-76.
  • Thompson Ch. 2003. Sealed silver in Iron Age Cisjordan and the ‘Invention’ of Coinage. “Oxford Journal of Archaeology” 22. 1, 67-107.
  • Veyne P. 1990. Bread and Circuses. New York.
  • Will E. 1975. Fonctions de la monnaie dans les cités grecques de l’époque classique. W: J.-M. Dentzer, Ph. Gauthier, T. Hackens (eds.) Numismatique antique, problèmes et méthodes. Nancy-Louvain, 233-246.
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
ISSN
0065-0986
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.desklight-f77d4804-a523-4655-a0a3-2eef03d75d64
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.