Ochrona dziennikarskich źródeł informacji w dobie cyfrowej w świetle Konwencji o ochronie praw człowieka i podstawowych wolności oraz Konstytucji RP
Protection of Journalistic Sources in the Digital Era under the European Convention on Human Rights, the Fundamental Freedoms and the Constitution of the Republic of Poland
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Secret surveillance measures based on new technologies, particularly interception of telecommunication, spy software or traffi c and location data are among the most effi cient methods of preventing and detecting various perils to the security of the state. However, they can become an exceptionally severe interference with the fundamental rights of individuals. Exceptional threat posed by the use of secret surveillance measures is the possibility of gathering information obtained “in confi dence”, particularly when identifying informant’s identity. Even the mere admissibility of the secret surveillance of journalists can cause “the freezing effect”, preventing them from publishing information considering public authorities activities. The possibility of investigating the private lives of journalists can stop them criticizing the government, even if the criticism is justifi ed. The consequence of it is the decline of the supervisory role of the press as a “guardian of democracy and pluralism”. The aim of this paper is to refl ect on the limits of the surveillance, the object of which — whether direct or indirect — are journalists. An attempt of creating an operative test based on Strasbourg and Polish constitutional case law, especially latest judgment K 23/11, estimating the relevance of provisions on surveillance considering the protection of reporter’s privilege and the freedom of press are also undertaken.
Publication order reference