Stosunki polsko-ukraińskie: granice współpracy na początku lat 90. XX w.
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It is indicated in the article, that Polish–Ukrainian and Ukrainian–Polish relations are described as difficult, complex, with painful historical memories, but also full of similarities, of ethos and of problems of everyday life. This situation is generated by the geographical location, national contact, cultures, traditions, attitudes, behaviours, social-politic values etc. Constitutional transformations accomplished during 20 years in Central and East Europe, revealed many new links in Polish–Ukrainian relations, they gained an important international capacity in the nineties. In this aspect the cultural heritage of borderland is very important. On one hand one observes the cultural proximity of both sides, mutual infiltration of attitudes, political and socio-economical behaviours, on the other – the birth of mutual distrust, and even hostility and a self-perception by the prism of an experienced wrong. The borderland heritage is kept away from political elites forming the relations between both sides, also at a lower level it is the object of attention in scientific research. A real interest of cultural and civilisation’s problems of Ukraine is not revealed in Poland. It results in a certain degree from the international strategy of the state, including the marginalisation of Polish eastern problems. In forming a new European order one determines an essential place for the functional arrangement concerning Polish and Ukrainian relations. From this point of view it is important to reach a full normalisation in the aspects of border, minorities and cultural heritage. In the article it is indicated, that the formation of a new international reality after 1989 relations reveals in Polish–Ukrainian relations: 1. A strong attachment to past experience in both nations, makes the creation of neighbour relations difficult, 2. Among the barriers of Polish–Ukrainian relations the ethnic stereotypes are still important, 3. In the strategy of negotiations of agreements and Polish–Ukrainian alliances the European Union standards take priority before actual direct relations and cultural conditions of neighbours, 4. The concluded arrangements and political agreements between both countries have mainly a declarative character, and not too much attention is paid to execution of established bilateral obligations. 5. A social-politic position of Poles in Ukraine and Ukrainians in Poland is an important reflection of Polish–Ukrainian and Ukrainian–Polish relations.
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