РЕАЛІЗАЦІЯ БІЛЬШОВИЦЬКОЇ ПОЛІТИКИ УКРАЇНІЗАЦІЇ В ЗАГАЛЬНООСВІТНІХ НАВЧАЛЬНИХ ЗАКЛАДАХ ГЛУХІВСЬКОЇ ОКРУГИ
The implementation of the bolshevik policy of ukrainization in secondary schools of Glukhiv district
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In the article, based on an analysis of the sources, it was found out that an important component of the socio-political and cultural processes of the 20–30-ies of the XXth century, initiated by the Bolsheviks, was a policy of «indigenization», aimed at providing the people of the Soviet republics with specific opportunities to develop their national culture and languages. In Ukraine the policy «indigenization» was called «Ukrainization». Educational work was declared by the Bolsheviks to be the third (after the military and economic) front of the struggle for socialism, but at the same time it became the main base for the implementation of the policy of Ukrainization. Officially the course on «ndigenization» was taken in 1923 at the XII Congress of the Bolshevik party. But even before its decision in September 1920, the Sovnarkom of the USSR announced the Ukrainization of schools, instructing the People’s Commissariat of education to develop urgently a plan for the development of education institutions of all levels with Ukrainian language of teaching. By the Council of people’s commissars was established the Central Ukrainization Commission. For the practical implementation of the developed activities the district commissions on Ukrainization were created in the districts. The position of District inspector on Ukrainization was introduced. To achieve the Ukrainization of schools it was necessary to prepare qualified teachers. In Glukhiv district teaching staff was systematically assessed and for those, who did not speak Ukrainian, appropriate training was organized. There was established a period, mainly for one year, for teachers to make a transition into Ukrainian as a language of teaching. Due to the targeted efforts of Glukhiv Inspectorate of public education all the schools in several districts were turned into Ukrainian. These results showed significant achievements in the development of Ukrainian national education on the territory Glukhiv district. It should be noted that Ukrainization of the public education system did not lead to the total use of Ukrainian and elimination of other languages. On the contrary, it contributed to the development of national schools, their actual rise in the second half of the 20-ies. The data of Inspectorate of education testify about the preservation of a network of national schools in Glukhiv district. Besides, the Russian-speaking population of Glukhiv district, willing to defend their privileged position at any cost, further defended the dominance of Russian culture. Failure to comply with orders of the Ukrainian authorities, sabotage were the usual means of struggle against the Ukrainian culture. Significant disadvantages in this case were observed in general education. So, in the course of checking the knowledge of Ukrainian language among the teachers in two districts, held in 1928, it was found out that only 8% know language enough. In the late 20-ies Ukrainization faded into the background, and the subsequent period finally nullified the results.
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