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2017 | 3-4 (263-264) | 361-369

Article title

Wewnętrzne przyczyny upadku monarchii Safawidów w dziełach o. Tadeusza Krusińskiego SJ


Title variants

Inner Reasons for the Fall of Safavid’s Monarchy in the Works of Tadeusz Krusiński SJ

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The Hotaki rebellion ending the Safavid rule over Iran, came as a considerable surprise to the Europeans. A Polish missionary named Tadeusz Juda Krusiński SJ, who was present in Isfahan during its siege in 1722, wrote a book about this revolution. This work enjoyed much popularity in 18th-century Europe. Krusiński considers the decline of the Safavid state to have been caused not only by the Afghan rebellion, but also by many internal factors. Among such, Krusiński mentions factionalism (the best example of which was the mutual hatred between the Haydari and Ne’mati societies), and the abuse of state power by provincial governors in various ways. But the most crucial was, according to Krusiński, the immense influence held by the eunuchs over the weak and irresolute Sultan Husayn, which led to the selling of impor-tant positions, and the impunity of the corrupted bureaucrats. Moreover, the numerous and frequent changes caused by the eunuchs’ personal policies fueled conflicts between provincial governors, which led to the oppression of Iran’s population, especially the Armenians. These internal problems let the Afghans not only to successfully rebel against the Safavid, but also to end their rule over the whole of Iran.




Physical description





  • Gemelli Giovanni Francisco, The collection of voyages and travels by Dr. John Francis Gemelli Carreri. In Six Parts, Viz. I. Of Turky. II. Of Persia. III. Of India. IV. Of China. V. Of the Philippine Islands. VI. Of New Spain, (przekład z jęz. włoskiego anonimowy), Henry Lintot & John Osborn, London 1715.
  • Anna Krasnowolska (red.), Historia Iranu, Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich, Wrocław 2010.
  • Krusiński Tadeusz Juda, The History of the late revolutions in Persia (przekład z jęz. francuskiego anonimowy), J. Pemberton, London 1728.
  • Krusiński T.J., Prodromus ad tragicam vertentis belli Persici Historiam, Coll. Societatis Jesu, Leopo-lis, 1737.
  • Krusiński T.J., Tragica vertentis belli persici historia per repetitas clades ab anno 1711 ad annum 1728vum continuata post gallicos, hollandicos, germanicos ac demum Tircicos authoris typos. Auctior authore patre Thadeo Krusinski Societatis Jesu missionario persico accesit ad eandem historiam prodormus iteratis typis subjectus, Coll. Societatis Jesu, Leopolis, 1740.
  • Krusiński T.J., The chronicles of the traveller, a history of the Afghan wars with Persia in the beginning of the last century from the commencement to the ascension of sultan Ashruf, being a translation of the “Tareekh -I-Seeah” from the latin of J.C. Clodius (przekład na jęz. angielski G. Newnham Mitford), James Ridgway, London 1840.
  • Matthee Rudi, Persia in Crisis. Safavid Decline and the Fall of Isfahan, I.B. Tauris Publishers, New York–London, 2012.
  • Natoński Bronisław, Krusiński (Krusieński, Kruszyński) Tadeusz Jan, w: Emanuel Rostworowski (red.), Polski Słownik Biograficzny, t. 15, z. 5, s. 427–428, Polska Akademia Nauk, Warszawa–Wrocław 1970.
  • Składanek Bogdan, Historia Persji, t. III, Wydawnictwo Akademickie „Dialog”, Warszawa 2007.

Document Type

Publication order reference



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