2017 | 19 | 1 | 83-136
Article title

Ritual Performances in the Nāṭyaśāstra I. Ritual Items

Title variants
Languages of publication
The present paper stands first in a series of planned articles that present systematically arranged data on ritual performances culled from Bharata’s Nāṭyaśāstra (usually dated around the beginning of the CE). This data is surprisingly extensive and multifaceted and mainly appears in the following three contexts: (1) the detailed description of five rituals of varying complexity that are preliminary to the staging of a play; (2) theatrical rules that codify the representation of rituals appearing in a play’s narrative; and (3) a wide variety of textual passages that, often parenthetically, offer insight into individual aspects of ritual acts. Before this information will be evaluated in the final essay of this series in order to assess the nature of the boundary between ritual and theatrical performances, it is presented systematically to be of use to ritual and theatrical studies in general. The present and the following article begin the series by offering information on ritual offerings and other items used in rituals contexts.
Physical description
  • Amaladass, A. 1999. Die Sakramentale Dimension des Schauspiels. Die schauspielerische Darbietung (nāṭya) als Opfer (yajña). In: Raumzeitliche Vermittlung der Transzendenz. Zur “sakramentalen” Dimension religiöser Tradition. Arbeitsdokumentation eines Symposiums. ÖAW, Philosophisch-Historische Klasse, Sitzungsberichte 665; Beiträge zur Kultur- und Geistesgeschichte Asiens 30. Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften: 131–150.
  • Apte | Apte Dictionary = Apte, V. S. 1957–1959. The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. 3 vols. Revised and Enlarged Edition. Eds. P. K. Gode and C. G. Karve. Poona: Prasad Prakashan.
  • Bansat-Boudon, L. 1991. The Lāsyāṅgas in Bharata’s Theatre Treatise. In: Indo-Iranian Journal, 34: 247–265.
  • —. 1992. Poétique du théâtre indien. Lectures du Nāṭyaśāstra. Publications de l’École Française d’Extrême-Orient 169. Paris: l’École Française d’Extrême-Orient.
  • Brunner, H. 2003. Maṇḍala and Yantra in the Siddhānta School of Śaivism: Definitions, Description and Ritual Use. Translated from the French by R. Prévèreau. In: G. Bühnemann (ed.). Maṇḍalas and Yantras in the Hindu Traditions. Brill’s Indological Library 18. Leiden: Brill: 153–177.
  • Brunner, H., G. Oberhammer, A. Padoux (eds.). 2000. Tāntrikābhidhānakośa. Dictionnaire des termes techniques de la littérature hindoue tantrique. A Dictionary of Technical Terms from Hindu Tantric Literature. Wörterbuch zur Terminologie hinduistischer Tantren. Philosophisch-historische Klasse. Sitzungsberichte 681; Beiträge zur Kultur- und Geistesgeschichte Asiens 35. Vol. 1. Wien: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Bühnemann, G. 1988. Pūjā. A Study in Smārta Ritual. Publications of the De Nobili Research Library 15. Vienna: Institut für Indologie der Universität Wien, Sammlung De Nobili.
  • Davidson, C. J. C. 1843. Diary of Travels and Adventures in Upper India, from Bareilly, in Rohilcund, to Hurdwar, and Nahun, in the Himmalaya Mountains, With a Tour in Bundelcund, A Sporting Excursion in the Kingdom of Oude, and a Voyage Down the Ganges. Vol. I. London: Henry Colburn.
  • Einoo, S. 1996. The Formation of the Pūjā Ceremony. In: H.-P. Schmidt et al. (eds.). Veda-vyākaraṇa-vyākhyāna: Festschrift Paul Thieme zum 90. Geburtstag am 18. März 1995 dargebracht von Schülern, Freunden und Kollegen. Studien zur Indologie und Iranistik 20. Reinbek: Dr. Inge Wezler Verlag für Orientalistische Fachpublikationen: 73–87.
  • EWA | Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen = Mayrhofer, M. 1992–2001. Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen. 3 vols. Heidelberg: Carl Winter.
  • Feistel, H.-O. 1969. Das Vorspiel auf dem Theater. Ein Beitrag zur Frühgeschichte des klassischen indischen Schauspiels. Dissertation. Tübingen: Philosophische Fakultät der Eberhard-Karls-Universität.
  • Ganser, E. 2016. Elements of Ritual Speculation in the Abhinavabhāratī: Abhinavagupta on the Visible and Invisible Purposes of the Pūrvaraṅga. In: E. Franco and I. Ratié (eds.). Around Abhinavagupta Aspects of the Intellectual History of Kashmir from the Ninth to the Eleventh Century. Leipziger Studien zu Kultur und Geschichte Süd- und Zentralasiens 6. Berlin: Lit Verlag: 189–230.
  • George, D. E. R. 1987. Ritual Drama: Between Mysticism and Magic. In: Asian Theatre Journal, 4(2): 127–165.
  • Gode, P. K. 1961. Studies in Indian Cultural History. Vol. 1. Studies in the History of Indian Gandha-Śastra (Science of Cosmetics and Perfumery). Vishveshvaranand Indological Series 9. Hoshiarpur: Vishveshvaranand Vedic Research Institute.
  • Gonda, J. 1975. Altind. pratisara-, sraj- und Verwandtes. In: Selected Studies. Presented to the author by the staff of the Oriental Institute, Utrecht University, on the occasion of his 70th birthday. Vol. II. Sanskrit Word Studies. Leiden: E. J. Brill: 375–392.
  • Goodall, D. and M. Rastelli (eds.). 2013. Tāntrikābhidhānakośa. Dictionnaire des termes techniques de la littérature hindoue tantrique. A Dictionary of Technical Terms from Hindu Tantric Literature. Wörterbuch zur Terminologie hinduistischer Tantren. Philosophisch-historische Klasse. Sitzungsberichte 839; Beiträge zur Kultur- und Geistesgeschichte Asiens 76. Vol. 3. Wien: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften.
  • Karttunen, K. 2011. Studies in the Gṛhya Prayogas of the Jaiminīya Sāmaveda. 5. Pratisarabandha. In: Studia Orientalia, 111: 83–86.
  • Kersenboom, S. C. 1990. Nāṭya—The Deśī Yajña. In: Indologica Taurinensia (Proceedings of the 7th World Sanskrit Conference), 15–16: 187–205.
  • KEWA | Kurzgefaßtes etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindischen = Mayrhofer, M. 1956–1980. Kurzgefaßtes etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindischen. A Concise Etymological Sanskrit Dictionary. 4 vols. Heidelberg: Carl Winter.
  • Kintaert, T. 2005. The Coordination of Musical and Scenic Elements in the Ritual Preliminaries (pūrvaraṅga) of the Ancient Indian Theatre. Supervisors: Univ.-Doz. Dr. Utz Podzeit and Univ.-Doz. Dr. Bettina Bäumer. Dissertation. Vienna: University of Vienna.
  • —. 2005b. The Use of Primary Colours in the Nāṭyaśāstra. In: S. Das and E. Fürlinger (eds.). Samarasya: Studies in Indian Arts, Philosophy and Interreligious Dialogue—in Honour of Bettina Bäumer. New Delhi: D.K. Printworld: 245–273.
  • —. (forthcoming a). Ritual Performances in the Nāṭyaśāstra: II: Food Offerings. In: Cracow Indological Studies 20(1).
  • —. (forthcoming b) n.d. Ritual Performances in the Nāṭyaśāstra: III. Ritual Agents, Ritual Contexts, Ritual Acts, and Conclusion.
  • Klostermaier, K. K. 2007. A Survey of Hinduism. 3rd ed. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  • Kuiper, F. B. J. 1979. Varuṇa and Vidūṣaka. On the Origin of the Sanskrit Drama. Amsterdam–Oxford–New York: North-Holland Publishing Company.
  • Lidova, N. 1996. Drama and Ritual of Early Hinduism. Performing Arts Series 4. 2nd ed. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
  • McHugh, J. 2012. Sandalwood and Carrion. Smell in Indian Religion and Culture. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Meyer, J. J. 1937. Drittes Stück. Indra. Der altindische Gott der Frühlingssonne und der Fruchtbarkeit und sein Fest. Mit einem Anhang: Varuṇa als chthonischer und Wachstumsgott. In: Trilogie altindischer Mächte und Feste der Vegetation. Ein Beitrag zur vergleichenden Religions- und Kulturgeschichte, Fest- und Volkskunde. Zürich–Leipzig: Niehans.
  • Michaels, A. 2003. Zur Dynamik von Ritualkomplexen. In: Forum Ritualdynamik, 3: 1–12.
  • Moačanin, K. G. 2003. The Origin(s) of nāṭya: nāṭya versus Ritual. In: R. Czekalska and H. Marlewicz (eds.). 2nd International Conference on Indian Studies. Proceedings. Cracow Indological Studies, 4–5: 239–250.
  • MW | Monier-Williams Dictionary = M. Monier-Williams. 1899. A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Etymologically and Philologically Arranged with Special Reference to Cognate Indo-European Languages. New Edition, Greatly Enlarged and Improved with the Collaboration of E. Leumann, C. Cappeller and Other Scholars. Oxford: Oxford University Press (repr. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1990).
  • Nelson, L. S. et al. 2007. Handbook of Poisonous and Injurious Plants. 2nd ed. New York: Springer Science+Business Media.
  • Olivelle, P. (ed.). 2015. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Law and Statecraft. Delhi: Primus Books.
  • PW | Großes Petersburger Wörterbuch / Large Petersburg Dictionary = Böhtlingk, O. and R. Roth. 1855–1875. Sanskrit-Wörterbuch. 7 vols. St. Petersburg: Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften (repr. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1990).
  • pw | Kleines Petersburger Wörterbuch / Small Petersburg Dictionary = Böhtlingk, O. 1883–1886. Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung. 7 vols. St. Petersburg: Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften (repr. in 3 vols. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1991).
  • Schmidt, R. 1924. Nachträge zum Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung von Otto Böhtlingk. Leipzig: Otto Harrassowitz (repr. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1991).
  • Rao, D. S. 1992. = Appendix 6: A Critical Survey of the Ancient Indian Theatre in Accordance with the Second Chapter of Bharata’s Nāṭyaśāstra. In: NŚ GOS: 418–449.
  • Rätsch, C. 2009. Enzyklopädie der psychoaktiven Pflanzen. Botanik, Ethnopharmakologie und Anwendung. Mit einem Vorwort von A. Hofmann. 9th ed. Aarau: AT.
  • Syed, R. 1990. Die Flora Altindiens in Literatur und Kunst. Dissertation. München: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität.
  • Turner, R. L. 1966. A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages. London: Oxford University Press.
  • Wessels-Mevissen, C. 2001. The Gods of the Directions in Ancient India. Origin and Early Development in Art and Literature (until c. 1000 A.D.). Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.
  • Yule, H. and A. C. Burnell. 1903. Hobson–Jobson. A Glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases, and of Kindred Terms, Etymological, Historical, Geographical and Discursive. New edition. London: John Murray.
  • Zin, M. 1998. Der Vidūṣaka jenseits der Bühne. In: Indo-Asiatische Zeitschrift, 2: 30–41.
  • Zin, M. 2015. The Jester and the vidūṣaka. In: A. A. Esposito et al. (eds.). “In ihrer rechten Hand hielt sie ein silbernes Messer mit Glöckchen...”: Studien zur indischen Kultur und Literatur. “In Her Right Hand She Held a Silver Knife with Small Bells...”: Studies in Indian Culture and Literature. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz: 379–396.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.