THE USE OF THE TERM ETHNOMUSICOLOGY IN UKRAINE AND POLAND BETWEEN 1928 AND 1939
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It has been generally assumed that the term 'ethnomusicology' was introduced by Jaap Kunst in 1950. Searches carried out in Ukrainian libraries by Bohdan Lukaniuk, professor of ethnomusicology from Lvov, show that the dating of this terminological innovation needs to be moved back to 1928. Klyment Kvitka, a prominent researcher (alongside Filaret Kolessa) of Ukrainian folklore, published, during the early twentieth century, texts which refer to 'ethnomusicology' as a discipline devoted to oral musical works (folk songs by themselves, instrumental works by themselves), in contrast to music ethnography, which examines the oral tradition in its cultural context, and in contrast to musicology, which studies written-composed music. From the beginning of the twentieth century Ukrainian researchers, characteristically, concentrated on the analysis and classification of folk songs. The transfer and functioning of the term 'ethnomusicology' in Poland may have been facilitated by the flow of ideas during musicological conferences, exchange of publications between scholars (e.g.. Kvitka-Chybinski), or training/lectures for cultural activists (Kamienski-Batko). However, it is also possible that the term 'ethnomusicology' was invented independently by Lucjan Kamienski in 1934, as demonstrated by Jan Steszewski. In February 1939 Walerian Batko published a definition of ethnomusicology as a young discipline researching collections of folk songs. Bohdan Lukaniuk hypothesises that the spread of this name for that branch of musicology in the West and in the USA may have been mediated by Mieczyslaw Kolinski (born in 1901 and based in Poland until 1923, then in Berlin until 1933), who collaborated with Jaap Kunst; however, this requires an examination of the whole of Kolinski's output. In accordance with the early definition of ethnomusicology, Kolinski concentrated on the analysis and measurement of the music of the world's cultures with no reference to its context. The history of the term testifies to the continuing need to trace the geneaology of the concepts involved above and beyond the language barriers in Europe. In the history of defining ethnomusicology we see that the term stays the same, but its meaning and range changes over time. What is apparent is the evolution of the term, from defining analysis and classification of pure musical works (the European profile of ethnomusicology) to its 'Americanisation', i.e. to being used to refer to the study of music in the context of performance, society and culture in general.
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