Emotional Frankness and Friendship in Polish Culture
Languages of publication
According to Wierzbicka (1999), one of the core values of Polish culture is sincerity and emotional frankness, in this study we tested this assumption analyzing display rules operating between friends. 100 respondents completed modified version of the Display Rule Assessment Inventory (Matsumoto, Yoo, Hirayama, & Petrova, 2005). Results show that Polish participants endorse more expression with close friends than with acquaintances and strangers. The obtained differences between those groups were quite large and similar to a pattern typical for collectivistic cultures. On the other hand, we reported high level of overall expressivity, typical of individualism. Such a high expressivity was found for all studied emotions, but pride, which is consistent with previous research on self-presentational modesty in Polish culture (e.g. Dabul, Wosińska, Cialdini, Mandal, & Dion, 1997).
- Bell, S., & Coleman, S. (Eds.). (1999). The anthropology of friendship. Oxford: Berg.
- Dabul, A.J., Wosińska, W., Cialdini, R.B., Mandal, E., & Dion, R. W. (1997). Self-presentational modesty across cultures. The effects of gender and social context in the workplace. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 28, 295-306.
- Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. (1969). The repertoire of nonverbal behavior: Categories, origins, usage, and coding. Semiotica, 1, 49-98.
- Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1975). Unmasking the face; a guide to recognizing emotions from facial clues. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
- Fehr, B. (1996). Friendship processes. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- French, D. C., Bae, A., Pidada, S., Lee, O. (2006). Friendships of Indonesian, South Korean, and U.S. college students. Personal Relationships, 13, 69-81.
- Hofstede, G. H. (1980). Culture’s consequences : International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.
- Hofstede, G. H. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
- Kim, U., Triandis, H. C., Kagitcibasi, C., Choi, S. C., & Yoon, G. (Eds.). (1994). Individualism and collectivism: Theory, method, and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Kitayama S., Mesquita B., Karasawa M. (2006). Cultural affordances and emotional experience: socially engaging and disengaging emotions in Japan and the United States. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 890-903.
- Mandal, E. (2007). Gender, Machiavellianism, study major, and fear of success. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 38, 40-49.
- Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98(2), 224-253.
- Matsumoto, D., & Lee, M. (1993). Consciousness, volition, and the neuropsychology of facial expressions of emotion. Consciousness & Cognition: an International Journal, 2(3), 237-254.
- Matsumoto, D., Yoo, S. H., Hirayama, S., & Petrova, G. (2005). Validation of an individual-level measure of display rules: The display rule assessment inventory (DRAI). Emotion, 5, 23-40.
- Matsumoto, D., Yoo, S., Fontaine, J. et al (2008). Mapping Expressive Differences around the World: The Relationship between Emotional Display Rules and Individualism v. Collectivism. Journal of Cross- Cultural Psychology, 39, 55-75[WoS]
- Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 128(1), 3-72.
- Rubin, L. B. (1985). Just friends: The role of friendship in our lives. New York: Harper & Row.
- Sheets, V. L., Luger, R. (2005). Friendship and gender in Russia and the United States. Sex Roles, 52, 131-140.
- Suh, E., Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Triandis, H. C. (1998). The shifting basis of life satisfaction judgments across cultures: Emotions versus norms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 482-493.
- Szarota, P. (2013). Cultural norms of sincerity. Paper presented at the IACCP Regional Conference in Los Angeles, June.
- Szarota, P, Bedyńska, S., Matsumoto, D., Yoo, S.H., Friedlmeier, W., Sterkowocz, S, Djunaidi, A., Setiono, K., & Purwono, U. (2009) Masking as a display strategy. Cross-cultural comparison. In A.
- Przepiorka i A. Błachnio (Eds.) Closer to Emotions III. Lublin: Wydawnictwo Katolickiego Uniwersytetu Lubelskiego.
- Szarota, P. & Cantarero, K. (submitted). Do we really like helpful liars? Apparently not in Poland.
- Triandis, H. C. (1995). New directions in social psychology: Individualism and collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
- Triandis, H.C., Bontempo, R., Villareal, M.J., Asai, M., & Lucca, N. (1988). Individualism and collectivism: cross-cultural perspectives on self-ingroup relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 2, 323-338.
- Wheeler, L., Reis, H.T., & Bond, M.H. (1989). Collectivism-individualism in everyday life: The middle kingdom and the melting pot. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 79-86.
- Wierzbicka, A. (1994). Emotion, language, and ‘cultural scripts’, In S.
- Kitayama & H. Markus (Eds.), Emotion and Culture: Empirical Studies of Mutual Influence (pp. 130-196), Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Wierzbicka, A. (1999). Emotions across languages and cultures: Diversity and universals. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Wojciszke, B. & Dowhyluk, M. (2006). Immorality of success: When legitimization does not work. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 37, 213-220.
- Yamaguchi, S. (1994). Collectivism among the Japanese: A perspective from the self. In U. Kim & H. C. Triandis (Eds.), Individualism and collectivism: Theory, method, and applications (Vol. 18, pp. 175-188). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Publication order reference