PL EN


2015 | 46 | 2 | 278-284
Article title

Life Satisfaction: Testing a Structural Equation Model Based on Authenticity and Subjective Happiness

Authors
Content
Title variants
Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
EN
The aim of this research is to examine the relationships between authenticity, subjective happiness, and life satisfaction. The participants were 347 university students. In this study, the Authenticity Scale, the Subjective Happiness Scale, and Satisfaction with Life Scale were used. The relationships between authenticity, subjective happiness and life satisfaction were examined using correlation analysis and Structural Equation Model (SEM). In correlation analysis, authentic living was found positively related to subjective happiness. On the other hand, self-alienation, accepting external influence was found negatively correlated to subjective happiness. Besides subjective happiness and life satisfaction have positive relation. Structural Equation Model showed that self-alienation, accepting external influence results in a decrease subjective happiness on life satisfaction whereas rise in authentic living lead to subjective happiness, so subjective happiness also brings life satisfaction. According to standardized beta coefficients (β= -.49), the most significant predictor of subjective happiness was self-alienation. Results were discussed in the light of the related literature.
Year
Volume
46
Issue
2
Pages
278-284
Physical description
Dates
published
2015-06-01
online
2015-05-22
Contributors
  • Dumlupınar University, Education Faculty, Psychological Counseling and Guidance, 43100, Kütahya, Turkey, hakansaricam@gmail.com
References
  • Ahuvia, A. C. (2002). Individualism/collectivism and cultures of happiness: A theoretical Conjecture on the relations between consumption, culture and subjective well-being at the national level. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3, 23-36.[Crossref]
  • Akın, A. (2012). The relationships between internet addiction, subjective vitality, and subjective happiness. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(8), 404-410.[PubMed]
  • Anik, L., Aknin, L. B., Norton, M. I. & Dunn, E. W. (2009). Feeling good about giving: The benefits (and costs) of self-interested charitable behavior. Harward Business School Working Paper, 10-012. www.hbs.edu/faculty/.../10-012.pdf . Accessed January, 2014.
  • Argyle, M., Martin, M., & Lu, L. (1995). Testing for stress and happiness: The role of social and cognitive factors. In C. D. Spielberger, & I. G. Sarason (Eds.), Stress and emotion (pp. 173-187). Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis.
  • Authenticity. (2014). Wiktionary, the free dictionary. from http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/authenticity. Accessed January, 2014.
  • Barrett-Lennard, G. T. (1998). Carl Rogers’ helping system: Journey and substance. London: Sage.
  • Baumeister, R. F., Campbell, J. D., Krueger, J. I., & Vohs, K. D. (2003). Does high self-esteem cause better performance, interpersonal success, happiness, or healthier lifestyles?. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4(1), 1-44.
  • Bettencourt, B. A., & Sheldon, K. (2001). Social roles as mechanisms for psychological need satisfaction within social groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 1131-1143.[Crossref]
  • Bialystok, L. (2009). Being your self: Identity, metaphysics, and the search for authenticity. PhD thesis. University of Toronto.
  • Brown, B. (2010). The gifts of imperfection: Let go of who you think you’re supposed to be and embrace who you are. Center City, MN: Hazelden.
  • Bruni, L. (2004). The economics of Happiness. Seminar at Centre for Administrative Innovation in the Euro.Mediterranean Region, http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/caimed/unpan019404.pdf. Accessed November, 2013.
  • Brülde, B. (2007). Happiness theories of the good life. Journal of Happiness Studies, 8(1), 15-49.[Crossref]
  • Bugay, A. (2007). Loneliness and life satisfaction of Turkish university students. Paper presented at 4th Education in a Changing Environment Conference, the University of Salford, UK, September.
  • Byrne, B. M. (2010). Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Campbell, A. (1981). The sense of well-being in America. New York: McGraw-Hill. p.19
  • Chekola, M. (2007). Happiness, rationality, autonomy and the good life. Journal of Happiness Studies, 8, 51-78.[Crossref]
  • Compton, W. C. (2005). An introduction to positive psychology. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
  • Cruise, S. M., Guckin, C. M., & Lewis, C. A.(2006). Internal consistency, reliability, and temporal stability of the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire Short-form: Test-retest data over two weeks. Social Behavior and Personality, 34(2), 123-126.[Crossref]
  • Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Hunter, J. (2003). Happiness in everyday life: The uses of experience sampling. Journal of Happiness Studies, 4, 185-199.[Crossref]
  • Diener E. (2000). Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and a proposal of a national index. American Psychologist, 55, 34-43.[Crossref]
  • Diener, E. (1996). Traits can be powerful, but they are not enough: Lessons from subjective well-being. Journal of Research in Personality, 30, 389-399.[Crossref]
  • Diener, E., Wirtz, D., Tov, W., Kim-Prieto, C., Choi. D., Oishi, S., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2009). New measures of well-being: Flourishing and positive and negative feelings. Social Indicators Research, 39, 247-266.
  • Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Lucas, R. E. (2003). Personality, culture, and subjective well-being: Emotional and cognitive evaluations of life. Annual Review Psychology, 54, 403-425.[Crossref]
  • Diener, E., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Very happy people. Psychological Science, 13, 81-84.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R., & Smith, H. E. (1999). Subjective wellbeing: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 276-302.[Crossref]
  • Doğan, T., & Totan, T. (2013). Psychometric properties of Turkish version of the Subjective Happiness Scale. The Journal of Happiness & Well- Being, 1(1), 20-27.
  • Doğan, T., & Akinci Çötok, N. (2011). Adaptation of the Short Form of the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire into Turkish: A validity and reliability study. Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 4(36), 165-172.
  • Duval, S., & Wicklund, R. A. (1972). A theory of objective self awareness (pp. 2-4). New York: Academic Press, Inc.
  • Eraslan Çapan, B. (2010). Relationship among perfectionism, academic procrastination and life satisfaction of university students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5(1), 1665-1671.
  • Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: youth and crisis. New York: Norton.
  • Fleeson, W., & Wilt, J. (2010) The relevance of Big Five trait content in behavior to subjective authenticity: do high levels of within-person behavioral variability undermine or enable authenticity achievement? Journal of Personality, 78(4), 1353-1382.
  • Fredrickson, B. L., & Joiner, T. (2002). Positive emotions trigger upward spirals toward emotional well-being. Psychological Science, 13, 172-175.[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Gable, S. L., & Haidt, J. (2005). What (and why) is positive psychology? Review of General Psychology, 9, 103-110.[Crossref]
  • Harter, S. (2002). Authenticity. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 382-394). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press
  • Harter, S., Marold, D. B., Whitesell, N. R., & Cobbs, G. (1996). A model of the effects of perceived parent and peer support on adolescent false self behavior. Child Development, 67, 360-374.[Crossref]
  • Hills, P., & Argyle, M. (2002). The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire: a compact scale for the measurement of psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 33, 1073-1082.[Crossref]
  • Hills, P., & Argyle, M. (2001). Happiness, introversion-extraversion and happy introverts. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 595-608.[Crossref]
  • Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cut off criteria for fit indexes in covariance structural analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 155.
  • Haybron, D. M. (2000). Two philosophical problems in the study of happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies, 1(2), 207-225.[Crossref]
  • Haybron, Daniel M. (2003). What do we want from a theory of happiness? Metaphilosophy, 34(3), 305-329.[Crossref]
  • İlhan, T., & Özdemir, Y. (2013). Adaptation of Authenticity Scale to Turkish: A validity and Reliability Study. Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal, 5(40), 142-153.
  • Joseph, S. Linley, P. A., Harwood, J., Lewis, C. A., & McCollam, P. (2005). Rapid assessment of well-being: The Short Depression-Happiness Scale (SDHS). Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 77, 463-478.
  • Kashdan, T. B. (2004). The assessment of subjective well-being (issue raired by the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire). Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 1225-1232.[Crossref]
  • Kernis, M. H. (2003). Toward a conceptualization of optimal self-esteem. Psychological Inquiry, 14, 1-26.[Crossref]
  • Kernis, M. H., & Goldman, B. M. (2005). From thought and experience to behavior and interpersonal relationships: A multicomponent conceptualization of authenticity. In A. Tesser, J. V. Wood, & D.
  • Stapel (Eds.), On building, defending, and regulating the self: A psychological perspective. (pp. 31-52). New York: Psychology Press.
  • Köker, S. (1991). Normal ve sorunlu ergenlerin yaşam doyumu üzeylerinin karşilaştirilmasi. [In Turkish: The comparison of normal and abnormal students’ life satisfaction levels]. Master’s thesis, Ankara/ Turkey: Ankara University.
  • Lee, J. Y., & Im, G. S. (2007). Self-enhancing bias in personality, subjective happiness, and perception of life events: A replication in a Korean aged sample. Aging and Mental Health, 11, 57-60.
  • Lopez, F. G., & Rice, K. G. (2006). Preliminary development and validation of a measure of relationship authenticity. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53, 362-371.[Crossref]
  • Lucas, R. E., Diener, E., & Suh, E. M. (1996). Discriminant validity of well-being measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 616-628.[Crossref]
  • Lyubomirsky, S. (2013). The myths of happiness: What should make you happy, but doesn’t, what shouldn’t make you happy, but does. New York: Penguin Press.
  • Lyubomirsky, S., Sheldon, K. M., & Schkade, D. (2005). Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology, 9(2), 111-131.[Crossref]
  • Lyubomirsky, S., & Lepper, H. S. (1999). A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation. Social Indicators Research, 46, 137-155.[Crossref]
  • May, R. (1981). Freedom and destiny. New York: Basic Books.
  • Myers, D. G. (2013). Psychology. (p. 479). New York: Worth Publishers.
  • Myers, D. G. (2000). Hope and happiness. In Gillham, J. (ed.), Dimensions of optimism and hope. Radnor, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.
  • Neff, K. D., & Suizzo, M. A. (2006). Culture, power, authenticity and psychological well-being within romantic relationships: A comparison of European American and Mexican Americans. Cognitive Development, 21, 441-457.[Crossref]
  • Neff, K. D., & Harter, S. (2002). The authenticity of conflict resolutions among adult couples: Does women’s other-oriented behavior reflect their true selves? Sex Roles, 47, 403-417.[Crossref]
  • Oishi, S., Diener, E. F., Lucas, R., & Suh, E. M. (1999). Cross-cultural variations in predictors of life satisfaction: Perspectives from needs and values. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 980-990. Pavot, Diener, Colvin & Sandvik 1991).[Crossref]
  • Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Introduction: Strengths of courage. In C. Peterson & M. E. P. Seligman (Eds.), Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification (pp. 197-212). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
  • Roberts, B. W., & Donahue, E. M. (1994). One personality, multiple selvesintegrating personality and social roles. Journal of Personality, 62, 199-218.[Crossref]
  • Rey, L., Extremera, N., & Pena, M. (2011). Perceived emotional intelligence, self-esteem and life satisfaction in adolescents. Psychosocial Intervention, 20(2), 227-234.
  • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Reviews Psychology, 52, 141-166.[Crossref]
  • Sagiv, L., Roccas, S., & Hazan, O. (2004). Value pathways to wellbeing: Healthy values, valued goal attainment, and environmental congruence. In P. A. L. S. Joseph (Ed.), Positive Psychology in Practice (pp. 68-85). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
  • Satıcı, S. A., Kayış, R., & Akın, A. (2013). Predictive role of authenticity on psychological vulnerability in Turkish university students. Psychological Reports: Mental & Physical Health, 112(2), 519-528
  • Seligman, M. E. P. (2011). Flourish: A new understanding of happiness and well-being and how to achieve them. London: Nicholas Brealey.
  • Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2005). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 60(5), 410-421. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.60.5.410[Crossref]
  • Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Authentic happiness: Using the new positive psychology to realize your potential for lasting fulfillment. Simon and Schuster.
  • Serin, N. B., Serin, O., & Özbaş, F. L. (2010). Predicting university students’ life satisfaction by their anxiety and depression level. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9 (2010), 579-582.
  • Sheldon, K. M., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2004). Achieving sustainable new happiness: Prospects, practices, and prescriptions. In A. Linley & S. Joseph (Eds.), Positive psychology in practice (pp. 127-145). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Sheldon, K. M., Ryan, R. M., Rawsthorne, L. J., & Ilardi, B. (1997). Trait self and true self: Cross-role variation in the big-five personality traits and its relations with psychological authenticity and subjective wellbeing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1380-1393.[Crossref]
  • Sirgy, M., Michalos, A. C., Ferriss, A., Easterlin, R. A., Patrick, D., & Pavot, W. (2006). The Quality-Of-Life (QOL) research movement: Past, present and future. Social Indicators Research, 76, 343-466. [Crossref]
  • Snyder, C. R., & Lopez, S. J. (2007). Positive psychology: The scientific and practical explorations of human strengths. Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications.
  • Stern, P.C., Dietz, T., Abel, T., Guagnano, G. A., & Kalof, L. (1999). A value-belief-norm theory of support for social movements: The case of environmentalism. Research in Human Ecology, 6, 81-97.
  • Stevens, D. D (1999). Spirituality, self-transcendence and depression in young adults with AIDS. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. University of Miami.
  • Stillman, T. F., Fincham, F. D., Vohs, K. D., Lambert, N. M., & Phillips, C. A. (2012). The material and immaterial in conflict: Spirituality reduces conspicuous consumption. Journal of Economic Psychology, 33, 1-7.[Crossref]
  • Suh, E., Diener, E., Oishi, S, et al. (1998). The shifting basis of life satisfaction judgments across cultures: emotions versus norms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 482-493.[Crossref]
  • Valois, R. F., Paxton, R. J., Zullig, K. J. & Huebner, E. S. (2006). Life satisfaction and violent behaviors among middle school students. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15, 695-707.
  • Vennhoven, R. (2003). Happiness. The Psychologist, 16(3), 128-9.
  • Vennhoven, R. (2005). Apparent quality of life in Nations. Social Indicators Research, 71, 61-68, https://ep.eur.nl/bitstream/1765/7200/1/SOC-2005-004.pdf. Accessed September, 2013.
  • Veenhoven, R. (1996). The study of life satisfaction. In Saris, W.E., Veenhoven, R., Scherpenzeel, A. C. & Bunting B. (Eds.), A comparative study of satisfaction with life in Europe. Eötvös University Press.
  • Yalom, I. D. (1980). Existential psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books.
  • Wang, L., & Graddy, E. (2008). Social capital, volunteering, and charitable giving. Voluntas, 19, 23-42.[Crossref]
  • Wood, A. M., Linley, P. A., Maltby, J., Baliousis, M., & Joseph, S. (2008). The authentic personality: A theoretical and empirical conceptualization and the development of the Authenticity Scale. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 55(3), 385-399. [Crossref]
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.doi-10_1515_ppb-2015-0034
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.