2013 | 22 | 1 | 21-43
Article title

The abundance of the future. A paraconsistent approach to future contingents

Title variants
Languages of publication
Supervaluationism holds that the future is undetermined, and as a consequence of this, statements about the future may be neither true nor false. In the present paper, we explore the novel and quite different view that the future is abundant: statements about the future do not lack truth-value, but may instead be glutty, that is both true and false. We will show that (1) the logic resulting from this “abundance of the future” is a non-adjunctive paraconsistent formalism based on subvaluations, which has the virtue that all classical laws are valid in it, while no formula like ∅∧¬∅ is satisfiable (though both ∅ and ¬∅ may be true in a model); (2) The peculiar behaviour of abundant logical consequence has an illuminating analogy in probability logic; (3) abundance preserves some important features of classical logic (not preserved in supervaluationism) when it comes to express those important retrogradations of truth which are presupposed by the argument de praesenti ad praeteritum.
Physical description
  • [Adams, 1999] Adams, E.W., A Primer of Probability Logic, Stanford, CSLI, 1999.
  • [Adams and Levine, 1975] Adams, E.W., and H. Levine, “On the uncertainties transmitted from premises to conclusions in deductive inferences”, Synthese 30, 3 (1975): 429-460. [Crossref]
  • [Aristotle, 1941] Aristotle, “De Interpretatione (On Interpretation)”, in The Basic Works of Aristotle, R. McKeon (ed.), Random House, New York, 1941.
  • [Bigaj, 2001] Bigaj, T., “Three-valued logic, indeterminacy and quantum mechanics”, Journal of Philosophical Logic 30 (2001): 97-119.
  • [Fine, 1975] Fine, K., “Vagueness, truth and logic”, Synthese 30 (1975): 265-300.
  • [Hasle and Øhrstrøm, 1995] Hasle, P., and P. Øhrstrøm, Temporal Logic from Ancient Ideas to Artificial Intelligence, Kluwer, 1995.
  • [Hyde, 1997] Hyde, D., “From heaps and gaps to heaps of gluts”, Mind 106 (1997): 641-660.
  • [Kamp, 1981] Kamp, H., “The paradox of the heap”, pages 225-277 in Aspects of Philosophical Logic, E. Mönnich (ed.), Dordrecht, Reidel, 1981.
  • [Lambert, 1969] Lambert, K., “Logical truth and microphysics”, pages 93-117 in The Logical Way of Doing Things, K. Lambert (ed.), New Haven, Yale University Press, 1969.
  • [MacFarlane, 2003] MacFarlane, J., “Future contingents and relative truth”, The Philosophical Quarterly 53 (2003): 321-336.
  • [Øhrstrøm, 2009] Øhrstrøm, P., “In defence of the thin red line: a case for ockhamism”, Humana.mente 8 (2009): 17-32.
  • [Prior, 1967] Prior, A.N., Past, Present and Future, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1967.
  • [Skyrms, 1968] Skyrms, B., “Supervaluations: Identity, existence, and individual concepts”, The Journal of Philosophy 69 (1968): 477-482.
  • [Thomason, 1970] Thomason, R., “Indeterministic time and truth-value gaps”, Theoria 36 (1970): 264-281.
  • [Thomason, 1972] Thomason, R., “A semantic theory of sortal incorrectness”, Journal of Philosophical Logic 1 (1972): 209-258.
  • [Thomason, 1984] Thomason, R.H., “Combinations of tense and modality”, pages 205-234 in Handbook of Philosophical Logic, F.G.D. Gabbay (ed.), Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht, 1984.
  • [van Fraassen, 1966] van Fraassen, B., “Singular terms, truth-value gaps, and free logic”, The Journal of Philosophy 63 (1966): 481-495.
  • [van Fraassen, 1969] van Fraassen, B., “Presuppositions, supervaluations, and free logic”, pages 67-91 in The Logical Way of Doing Things, K. Lambert (ed.), New Haven, Yale University Press, 1969.
  • [Varzi, 1995] Varzi, A., “Super-duper supervaluationism”, pages 17-40 in Log- ica 94. Proceedings of the 8th Logical Symposium, O.M.T.Childers (ed.), Philosophia, Prague, 1995.
  • [Varzi, 1999] Varzi, A., An Essay in Universal Semantics, Berlin, Springer Verlag, 1999.
  • [Varzi, 2003] Varzi, A., “Supervaluationism and paraconsistency”, pages 279-297 in Frontiers in Paraconsistent Logic, D. Batens (ed.), Baldock: Research Study Press, 2003.
  • [Varzi, 2007] Varzi, A., “Supervaluationism and its logics”, Mind 116 (2007): 633-676.[WoS]
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.