PL EN


2012 | 16 | 3 | 185-200
Article title

Pedestrian Representation Through the Analysis of Little Stories

Title variants
Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
EN
This research is concerned with the problem of pedestrians as vulnerable road users. It falls within the study of social representations and risk. In this study, the representation of pedestrians by both young and experienced drivers was analyzed. A questionnaire of eleven little stories was devised and used to contextualize the environment more clearly. The participants had to make up an ending for the story according to their own behavior or feelings in each situation. Multiple correspondence analysis via the categorization of the verbatim accounts reveals homogeneity in the reactions and feelings of both groups. This homogeneity reflects the importance of civil attitudes in situations of interaction since they call on the notion of “respect.” Finally, the qualitative approach of the little stories highlights the place of emotions in specific driver-pedestrian interaction contexts.
Publisher
Year
Volume
16
Issue
3
Pages
185-200
Physical description
Dates
published
2012-12-01
online
2012-12-21
Contributors
  • LUNAM Université, University of Angers, Laboratoire de Psychologie des Pays de la Loire (LPPL), UPRES EA 4638, Maison des Sciences Humaines, 5 bis boulevard Lavoisier, 49045 Angers cedex 01, France, sandrine.gaymard@univ-angers.fr
References
  • Abric, J.-C. (1976). Jeux, conflits et représentations sociales. Thèse de doctorat d’Etat. Aix-en-Provence: Université de Provence.
  • Abric, J.-C. (Ed.) (1994). Pratiques sociales et représentations. Paris: Presses uni­versitaires de France.
  • Abric, J.-C. (Ed.) (2003). Méthodes d’étude des représentations sociales. Ramonville Saint-Agne: Erès.
  • Alhakami, A.S. & Slovic, P. (1994). A psychological study of the inverse relationship between perceived risk and perceived benefit. Risk Analysis, 14, 1085-1096.[Crossref]
  • Andrés, S. & Gaymard, S. (2010). The representation of the pedestrian by young drivers: a theoretical reflexion on the cultural construction of representations. In Actes du Colloque International ITFH «Infrastructures, Technologies and human factors Multidisciplinary approach of the safety in means of Transpor­tation» (pp. 57-58). Angers: Université d’Angers.
  • Bauer, M.W. & Gaskell, G. (1999). Towards a paradigm for research on social repre­sentations. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 29, 163-186.[Crossref]
  • Benzecri, J.-P. (1980). L’analyse des données tome 2:L’analyse des correspondances. Paris: Bordas.
  • Borowsky, A., Shinar, D., & Oron-Gilad, T. (2010). Age, skill, and hazard perception in driving. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 42, 1240-1249.
  • Breakwell, G.M. (2001). Mental models and social representations of hazards: The significance of identity processes. Journal of Risk Research, 4, 341-351.[Crossref]
  • Breakwell, G.M. (2007). The psychology of risk. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Uni­versity Press.
  • Chan, E., Pradhan, A.K., Pollatsek, A., Knodler, M.A., & Fisher, D.L. (2010). Are driving simulators effective tools for evaluating novice drivers’ hazard antici­pation, speed management, and attention maintenance skills? Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 13, 343-353.[Crossref]
  • Crundall, D., Underwood, G., & Chapman, P. (1999). Driving experience and the functional field of view. Perception, 28, 1075-1087.[Crossref]
  • Doise, W. (1985). Les représentations sociales: Définition d’un concept. Connexion, 45, 243-253.
  • Doise, W., Clemence, A., & Lorenzi-Cioldi, F. (1992). Représentations sociales et analyses de données. Grenoble: Presses Universitaires de Grenoble.
  • Durkheim, E. (1898/1967). Représentations individuelles et représentations col­lectives. Revue de Métaphysique et de morale, Tome VI, republié in Sociologie et philosophie. Paris: Presses universitaires de France.
  • Evans, T. & Macdonald, W. (2002). Novice driver situation awareness and haz­ard perception: An exploratory study. In Road Safety Research, Policing and Education Conference, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. Vol. 1 (pp. 85-90). Walkerville: Transport SA.
  • Farr, R. (1984). Les représentations sociales. In S. Moscovici (Ed.), Psychologie sociale (pp. 379-389). Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
  • Farr, R. (1987). Social representations: A French tradition of research. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 17, 343-365.[Crossref]
  • Finn, P. & Bragg, B.W.E. (1986). Perception of the risk of an accident by young and older drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 18, 289-298.
  • Finucane, M.L., Alhakami, A.S., Slovic, P., & Johnson, S.M. (2000). The affect heuristic in judgements of risk and benefits. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 13, 1-17.[Crossref]
  • Garay-Vega, L., Fisher, D.L., & Pollatsek, A. (2007). Hazard anticipation of novice and experienced drivers: Empirical evaluation on a driving simulator in daytime and night time conditions. Transportation Research Record, 2009, 1-7.
  • Gaymard, S. (2003). La négociation interculturelle chez les filles franco-maghrébines: Une étude de représentation sociale. Paris: L’Harmattan.
  • Gaymard, S. (2007). La représentation de la conduite chez des jeunes conducteurs: Une étude de la conditionnalité routière. Recherche Transports Sécurité, 97, 339-359.
  • Gaymard, S. (2009). Norms in social representations: Two studies with French young drivers. The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, 1, 165-181.
  • Gaymard, S., Agbotsoka, T., & Nzobounsana, V. (2009). La représentation des inter­actions conducteurs/piétons: Une approche des émotions (The representation of driver/pedestrian interactions: An approach of emotions). Actes du colloque organisé par l’ADRIPS, Emotions en psychologie sociale (p. 49). Paris: Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense.
  • Gaymard, S., Allain, P., Osiurak, F., & Le Gall, D. (2011). The conditions of respect of rules in young and elderly drivers: An exploratory study. The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, 3, 11-28.
  • Gaymard, S., Andrés, S., & Nzobounsana, V. (2011). La representaciôn social y las emociones de los conductores Franceses y Españoles acerca de los pea- tones (Social representation and emotions in French and Spanish drivers toward pedestrians). In F. Expôsito, M.C. Herrera, G. Buela-Casal, M. Novo, & F. Farina (Eds.), Psicologia jurïdica. Âreas de investigaciôn (pp. 435-442). Santiago de Compostela: Conselleria de Presidencia, Xustiza e Adminis-tracións Publicas.
  • Gaymard, S., Boucher, V., Nzobounsana, V., Greffier, F., & Fournela, F. (2012). La perception des piétons par les conducteurs: corrélations entre les données d’un œil électronique et le verbatim des conducteurs / Drivers’ perception of pedestrians: correlations between the data of an electronic eye and drivers’ verbatim. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science / Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement. Advance online publication. <http://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/a0025789>[Crossref]
  • Groeger, J.A. & Chapman, P.R. (1996). Judgement of traffic scenes: The role of danger and difficulty. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 10, 349-364.[Crossref]
  • Hewstone, M. & Augoustinos, M. (1998). Social attributions and social representa­tions. In U. Flick (Ed.), The psychology of the social (pp. 60-76). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Holland, C. & Hill, R. (2007). The effect of age, gender and driver status on pedes­trians’ intentions to cross the road in risky situations. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 39, 224-237.
  • Joffe, H. (1999). Risk and 'the other’. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Joffe, H. (2003). Risk: From perception to social representation. British Journal of Psychology, 42, 55-73.[Crossref]
  • Joffe, H. & Lee, L. (2004). Social representation of a food risk: The Hong Kong avian bird flu epidemic. Health Psychology, 9, 517-533.[Crossref]
  • Jovchelovitch, S. (1996). In defense of representations. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 26, 121-135.[Crossref]
  • Khan, F.M., Jawaid, M., Chotani, H., & Luby, S. (1999). Pedestrian environment and behaviour in Karachi, Pakistan. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 31, 335-339.
  • Krotosky, S.J. & Trivedi, M.M. (2007). On color-, infrared-, and multimodal-stereo approaches to pedestrian detection. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transpor­tation Systems, 8, 619-629.
  • Languin, N., Widmer, E., Kellerhals, J., & Robert, C-N. (2004). Les représentations sociales de la justice pénale: Une trilogie. Déviance et Société, 28 (2), 159-178.
  • Maeda, K., Uchiyama, A., Umedu, T., Yamaguchi, H., Yasumoto, K., & Higashino, T. (2009). Urban pedestrian mobility for mobile wireless network simulation. Ad Hoc Networks, 7, 153-170.[Crossref]
  • Maycock, G. & Forsyth, E. (1997). Cohort Study of learner and novice drivers, Part 4: Novice driver accidents in relation to methods of learning to drive, performance in the driving test and self assessed driving ability and behaviour. TRL Report 275. Crowthorne, UK: Transport Road Research Laboratory.
  • Moscovici, S. (1961/76). La psychanalyse, son image et son public. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
  • Parkinson, B. (2001). Anger on and off the road. British Journal ofPsychology, 92, 507-526.[Crossref]
  • Piaget, J. (1977). Mes idées. Paris: Denoël/Gonthier.
  • Pollatsek, A., Fisher, D., & Pradhan, A. (2006). Identifying and remedying failures of selective attention in younger drivers. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15, 255-259.[Crossref]
  • Roland-Levy, C. (2004). De la psychologie sociale à la psychologie économique en passant par la psychologie politique. Les cahiers psychologie politique, 5. Retrieved from: <http://lodel.irevues.inist.fr/cahierspsychologiepolitique/index.php?id=1302>
  • Sarkar, S. & Andreas, M. (2004). Drivers’ perception of pedestrians’ rights and walk­ing environments. Transportation Research Record, 1878, 75-82.
  • Schmidt, S. & Färber, B. (2009). Pedestrians at the kerb - Recognising the action intentions of humans. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 12, 300-310.[Crossref]
  • Scialfa, C.T., Deschênes, M.C., Ference, J., Boone, J., Horswill, M.S., & Wetton, M. (2011). A hazard perception test for novice drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43, 204-208.
  • Thompson, S.J., Fraser, E.J., & Howarth, C.I. (1985). Driver behaviour in the pres­ence of child and adult pedestrians. Ergonomics, 28, 1469-1474.[Crossref]
  • Tom, A., Auberlet, J.M., & Brémond, R. (2008). Approche psychologique de l’activité de traversée de piétons. Implications pour la simulation microscopique du trafic urbain. Recherche Transports Sécurité, 101, 265-279.
  • Tsoukalas, I. (2006). A method for studying social representations. Quality and Quantity, 40, 959-981.
  • Tversky, A. & Kahneman, D. (1974). Judgement under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Science, 185, 1124-1131.
  • Underwood, G., Phelps, N., Wright, C., Loon, E.V., & Galpin A. (2005). Eye fixation scanpaths of younger and older drivers in a hazard perception task. Ophthalmic Physiological Optic, 25, 346-356.
  • Viaud, J. (2005). Représentations du régime de Vichy ou «se souvenir de ne pas oublier». Temporalités, 3, 15-40.
  • Vergès, P. (2001). L’analyse des représentations sociales par questionnaires. Revue française de sociologie, 42, 537-561.
  • Wagner, W. (1996). Queries about social representation and construction. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 26, 95-120.[Crossref]
  • Widmer, E., Languin, N., Pattaroni, L., Kellerhals, J., & Robert, C.N. (2004). Du sentiment d’insécurité aux representations de la délinquance. Déviance et Société, 28 (2), 141-157.
  • Zajonc, R. B. (1980). Feeling and thinking: Preferences need no inferences. American Psychologist, 35, 151-175.[Crossref]
  • ---
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.doi-10_2478_v10057-012-0013-9
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.