2011 | 4 | 2 | 154-186
Article title

Can a Senior Civil Servant Adapt to Managing by Contract? Reform and Civil Servants' Preferences in Lithuanian Government

Title variants
Languages of publication
This article seeks to explain the attitudes of civil servants to the preparation of redesigning the civil service system. The starting point for this study is the perplexing point that the plans to reform the Lithuanian civil service system, which was designed to enhance the influence and role of top managers, resulted in the civil servants themselves as the plan's most conspicuous opponents. The article provides explanations to this puzzling situation, drawing on contractualization as the radical reform model or public management model. An attempt is made to find some support for performance contracts, as well as the objectives of rotation implementation and the creation of a higher civil service system. The article argues that civil servants may regard contracts and other managerial elements as a way of realizing other objectives in the reform that they value.
Physical description
  • Faculty of Political Sciences and Diplomacy, Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania
  • "Administrative Capacity in the New EU Member States: the Limits of Innovation?" Document of the World Bank (December 2006) //
  • Ban, Carolyn. "The Changing Role of the Human Resource Office": 41-57. In: Stephen E. Condrey, ed. Handbook of Human Resource Management in Government. San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 2005.
  • Besley, Timothy. Principled Agents? The Political Economy of Good Government. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.
  • Binderkrantz, Anne, and Jorgen Christensen. "Governing Danish Agencies by Contract: From Negotiated Freedom to the Shadow of Hierarchy." Journal of Public Policy 29 (2009): 55-78.
  • Brans, Marleen, and Annie Hondeghem. "The Senior Civil Service in Belgium": 121-147. In: Edward C. Page and Vincent Wright, eds. Bureaucratic Elites in Western European States. A Comparative Analysis of Top Officials. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
  • Butkevičienė, Eglė, Eglė Vaidelytė, and Giedrius Žvaliauskas. "Lyderystės raiška Lietuvos valstybės tarnyboje" (Roles of Leadership in Lithuanian Public Sector). Viešoji politika ir administravimas 27 (2009): 36-44.
  • Christensen, Jorgen. "Danish Public Management Reform before and after NPM": 279-299. In: Shaun Goldfinch and Joe L. Wallis, eds. International Handbook of Public Management Reform. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2009.
  • Christensen, Tom, and Per Laergreid. "Administrative Reform Policy: The Challenges of Turning Symbols into Practice." Public Organization Review: A Global Journal 3 (2003): 8.
  • Cole, Alistair, and Jones Glyn. "Reshaping the State: Administrative Reform and New Public Management in France." Governance 18 (2005): 567-588.
  • Corte-Real, Isabel. "Public Management Reform in Portugal: Successes and Failures." International Journal of Public Sector Management 21 (2008): 205-229.
  • Cristofoli, Daniela, Greta Nasi, Alex Turrini, and Giovanni Valotti. "Civil Service Reforms in Italy: The Importance of External Endorsement and Administrative Leadership." Governance 24 (2) (2011): 261-283.
  • Dierickx, Guido. "Senior Civil Servants and Bureaucratic Change in Belgium." Governance 16 (2003): 321-348.
  • Durant, Robert F., and Jerome S. Legge. "Politics, Public Opinion and Privatization in France: Assessing the Calculus of Consent for Market Reforms." Public Administration Review 62 (3) (2002): 307-321.[Crossref]
  • Gains, Francesca, Peter John, and Gerry Stoker. "When Do Bureaucrats Prefer Strong Political Principals? Institutional Reform and Bureaucratic Preferences in English Local Government." British Journal of Politics and International Relations 10(4) (2008): 649-655.
  • Gregory, Robert, and Jorgen Christensen. "Similar Ends, Differing Means: Contractualism and Civil Service Reform in Denmark and New Zealand." Governance 17 (2004): 59-82.
  • Gualmini, Elissabeta. "Restructuring Weberian Bureaucracy: Comparing Managerial Reforms in Europe and the United States." Public Administration 86 (1) (2008): 75-94.
  • Halligan, John. "Anglo-American Systems: Easy Diffusion": 50-65. In: Jos C.N. Raadschelders, Theo Toonen, and Frits M. Van der Meer, eds. The Civil Service in the 21st Century: Comparative Perspectives. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
  • Halligan, John. "The Australian Public Service: Redefining Boundaries, Administrative Traditions and the Anglo-American Democracies": 70-113. In: John Halligan, ed. Civil Service Systems in Anglo-American Countries. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2003.
  • Hood, Christopher, and Martin Lodge. The Politics of Public Service Bargains: Reward, Competency, Loyalty - and Blame. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.
  • Hood, Christopher. "Individualized Contracts for Top Public Servants: Copying Business, Path-Dependent Political Re-Engineering-or Trobriand Cricket?" Governance 11 (1998): 443-462.
  • Howlett, Michael. "Administrative Styles and the Limits of Administrative Reform: A Neo-Institutional Analysis of Administrative Culture." Canadian Public Administration 46 (2003): 471-494.
  • Huber, John, and Charles Shipan. Deliberate Discretion? The Institutional Foundations of Bureaucratic Autonomy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
  • Ketelaar, Anne, Nick Manning, and Edouard Turkisch. "Performance-Based Arrangements for Senior Civil Servants OECD and other Country Experiences." OECD Working Papers on Public Governance Vol. 5 (2007) // DOI: 10.1787/16072663075 28.[Crossref]
  • Lægreid, Per. "Top Civil Servants under Contract. Public Administration." Public Administration 4 (2000): 879-896.
  • Lietuvos gyventojų apklausos apie pasitikėjimą valstybės ir savivaldybių institucijomis ir įstaigomis 2006 -2010 m. (Survey Researches on the Lithuanian Citizens' Trust in State and Municipal Institutions and Agencies, 2006-2010). Lietuvos Respublikos Vidaus reikalų ministerija (Ministry of the Interior of the Republic of Lithuania) //
  • LK (TS) Seimo rinkimų programa 2008-2012 (2008 - 2012 Election Program of "Homeland Union - Lithuanian Christian Democrats" Party) //
  • Maeder, Christoph. "The Poetics of Management, and the Politics of Organizational Cultures. A Sociological view on NPM - Reform in Switzerland": 65-75. In: Kuno Schedler and Isabella Proeller, eds. Cultural Aspects of Public Management Reform. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2007.
  • Maniokas, Klaudijus. "Valstybės tarnybos reforma ar jos chunveibiniškas griovimas?" (Civil Service Reform or Its Demolition in Hongweibing Style). (June 1, 2009) // (accessed October 1, 2011).
  • Mascarenhas, R.C. "The New Zealand Public Service: National Identity and International Reform": 113-147. In: Jos C.N. Raadschelders, Theo Toonen, and Frits M. Van der Meer, eds. The Civil Service in the 21st Century: Comparative Perspectives. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
  • Masiulis, Kęstutis. "Saulėlydžio komisijai jau artėja saulėlydis" (Sunset Commission Comes to Its Sunset). (August 8, 2009) [Interview with Ex-Member of Sunset Commission Kęstutis Masiulis] // (accessed October 1, 2011).
  • Meyer-Sahling, Jan-Hinrik, and Vitalis Nakrošis. "Modernising the Lithuanian Civil Service". Report Paper (February 2009; Vilnius University, the University of Nottingham): 1-185.
  • Meyer-Sahling, Jan-Hinrik. Post-Accession Sustainability of Civil Service Reform in Central and Eastern Europe. Paris: OECD-SIGMA Publications, 2009.
  • Nakrošis, Vitalis. "Viešojo valdymo reformos Lietuvoje: kodėl ir kuo reikia pakeisti Naujają viešąją vadybą" (Reforms of Public Administration in Lithuania: Why and by whom the New Public Management Has to Be Replaced). Politologija 1 (2011): 65-98.
  • Ongaro, Edoardo. Public Management Reform and Modernization, Trajectories of Administrative Change in Italy, France, Greece, Portugal and Spain. Cheltenham & Northampton: Edward Elgar, 2009.
  • Palaitis, Raimundas. "Reikia ne valdyti, o tarnauti" (It Is Necessary to Serve, not to Govern). (September 14, 2009) [Personal interview about implementation of civil service reform] // (accessed October 1, 2011).
  • Palidauskaitė, Jolanta, and Irena Segalovičienė. "Valstybės tarnautojų motyvacijos profilis Lietuvoje: empirinio tyrimo rezultatų analizė" (The Motivational Profile of Lithuanian Civil Servants: Analysis of the Results of Empirical Research). Organizacijų vadyba, sisteminiai tyrimai 80 (2008): 73-90.
  • Parrado, Salvador. "Failed Policies but Institutional Innovation through ‘Layering’ and ‘Diffusion’ in Spanish Central Administration." International Journal of Public Sector Management 21 (2008): 230-252.
  • Pedersen, Peter, Hanne Sorensen, and Jakob Vestergaard. "Public Service Performance Contracting in Denmark." OECD (1999) // (accessed May 10, 2011).
  • Peters, Guy B. "Administrative Traditions and the Anglo-American Democracies": 10-27. In: John Halligan, ed. Civil Service Systems in Anglo-American Countries. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2003.
  • Peters, Guy B. "What Works? The Antiphons of Administrative Reforms": 78-108. In: B. Guy Peters and Donald Savoie, eds. Taking Stock: Assessing Public Sector Reform. Montreal and Kingston: Canadian Centre for Management Development and McGill-Queen's University Press, 1998.
  • Peters, Guy B., and Martin Painter. "Conclusion: Administrative Traditions in an Era of Administrative Change": 234-237. In: B. Guy Peters and Martin Painter, eds. Tradition and Public Administration. New York & Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.
  • Pivoras, Saulius. "Post-Soviet Transformation of Bureaucracy in Lithuania: Main Features and Trends." Baltic Journal of Law & Politics 1 (2008): 111-131 // DOI: 10.2478/v10076-008-0007-z.[Crossref]
  • Pollitt, Christopher, and Geert Bouckaert. Public Management Reform: A Comparative Analysis-New Public Management, Governance, and the Neo-Weberian State. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
  • Putseys, Line, and Annie Hondeghem. "Contractualisation of Top Civil Servants: an International Comparative Research." Annual Meeting of the European Group of Public Administration (EGPA) (September 2003) // (accessed October 11, 2011).
  • Pyper, Robert, and June Burnham. "The British Civil Service: Perspectives on ‘Decline’ and ‘Modernisation’." The British Journal of Politics & International Relations 13 (2011): 189-205.
  • Rouban, Luc. "Reform without doctrine: public management in France." International Journal of Public Sector Management 21 (2008): 133-149.
  • Schick, Allen. "The Spirit of Reform: Managing the New Zealand State Sector in a Time of Change." A Report Prepared for the State Services Commission and the Treasury, New Zealand (August 1996) //
  • Spanou, Calliope. "State Reform in Greece: Responding to Old and New Challenges." International Journal of Public Sector Management 21 (2008): 150-173.
  • Standartinis Eurobarometras 72, Šalies ataskaita, Lietuva (Standard Eurobarometer Survey 72, Lithuania Report). ES Komunikacijos generalinis direktoratas (EU Directorate-General for Communication) (Autumn 2009) //
  • Steen, Trui, and Frits M. Van der Meer. "Dutch Civil Service Leadership: Torn between Managerial and Policy-Oriented Leadership Roles": 109-126. In: Jeffrey A. Raffel, Peter Leisink, and Anthony Middlebrooks, eds. Public Sector Leadership: International Challenges and Perspectives. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2009.
  • Valstybės tarnautojų motyvavimo galimybių sunkmečio laikotarpiu tyrimo rezultatai (Results of the Study of the Motivational Patterns of Civil Servants in the Time of Hardship). Lietuvos Respublikos Valstybės tarnybos departamentas (Civil Service Department of the Republic of Lithuania) (September 29, 2009) //
  • Van Dorpe, Karolien, Annie Hondeghem, Montuelle Caroline, and Christian de Visscher. "Assessing the Belgian Mandate System from an International Comparative Perspective." ESPA Conference, Rotterdam (September 3-6, 2009) // (accessed May 23, 2011).
  • Dėl darbo grupės sudarymo (On the Formation of a Legislative Working Group). Decree of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Lithuania No. 262 (July 13, 2010) //
  • Dėl Lietuvos Respublikos Vyriausybės 2002 m. birželio 17 d. nutarimo Nr. 909 ‘Dėl Valstybės tarnautojų kvalifikacinių klasių suteikimo ir valstybės tarnautojų tarnybinės veiklos vertinimo taisyklių bei Valstybės tarnautojų tarnybinės veiklos vertinimo kriterijų’ pakeitimo (On the Amendment of the Resolution of the Government of the Republic of Lithuania of 17th of June, 2002, No. 909 ‘On the Classification of Civil Servants and the Rules of the Evaluation of the Activity of Civil Servants and the Criteria of the Evaluation of the Activity of Civil Servants’). Resolution of the Government of the Republic of Lithuania No. 1860 (December 29, 2009) //
  • Lietuvos Respublikos Valstybės tarnybos įstatymo pakeitimo įstatymo projektas (Draft Law on the Amendment of the Law on Civil Service of the Republic of Lithuania). No. 10-4358-01 (October 27, 2010) //
  • Minutes by the Sunset Commission under the Government of the Republic of Lithuania No. 63-23 (February 25, 2010) //
  • Minutes by the Sunset Commission under the Government of the Republic of Lithuania No. 63-5 (February 11, 2010) //
  • Minutes by the Sunset Commission under the Government of the Republic of Lithuania No. 73-36 (18) (June 10, 2011) //
  • Minutes by the Sunset Commission under the Government of the Republic of Lithuania for the year 2009-2011 //
  • Nutarimas dėl valstybės tarnybos tobulinimo koncepcijos patvirtinimo (Resolution on the Authorization of the Civil Service Improvement Strategy Conception). Project by the Government of the Republic of Lithuania No. 10-2142-01 (May 31, 2010) //
  • On the Programme of the Government of the Republic of Lithuania. Resolution of Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania No. XI-52 (December 09, 2008) //
  • Valstybės tarnybos (įskaitant statutinę valstybės tarnybą) tobulinimo gairės (Working Document on the Improvement of Civil Service (Including the Statutory Civil Service)). Office of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Lithuania (May 20, 2011).
  • Valstybės tarnybos tobulinimo koncepcija (Civil Service Improvement Conception). Project by the Office of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Lithuania (March 01, 2010) //
  • Valstybinio audito ataskaita: statutinės vidaus tarnybos valdymas (Report of the State Audit: Management of Statutory Civil Service). Report of the National Audit Office of Lithuania No. VA-P-40-3-2 (January 13, 2011) //
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.