Lithuania in U.S. Foreign Policy During the Presidencies of B. Clinton and B. Obama
Languages of publication
The presidency of Barack Obama is often compared with the presidency of Bill Clinton, because many similarities exist between them such as warm relations with Russia, preference for soft-power instead of hard power, and so on. This article addresses the question of whether Lithuania's role in U.S. foreign policy is also similar in the two presidencies, since Lithuania (and the other Baltic states) was always in the U.S. field of interest because of its geopolitical position and U.S. competition with Russia. This article seeks to compare the role of Lithuania in U.S. foreign policy during the presidency of B. Clinton and B. Obama according to several criteria: the presentation of Lithuania in U.S. strategic documents and official rhetoric; the role of Lithuania in U.S. foreign policy practice; and the role of Lithuania in U.S.-Russian relations.The article concludes that Lithuania's presentation in U.S. strategic documents and official rhetoric during the presidency of B. Clinton and B. Obama differs mostly in frequency of mention. In foreign policy practice U.S.-Lithuanian relations were transferred from the format "Work for you" to "Work with you." However, although in U.S.-Russian relations Lithuania was never the main factor that sharpened these relations- it only received its main security guarantees during the presidency of B. Obama.
- A Charter of Partnership among the United States of America and the Republic of Estonia, Republic of Latvia, and Republic of Lithuania (January 16, 1998) //
- Baltijos šalys tariasi dėl bendrų veiksmų saugumo ir energetikos srityse. Lietuvos Respublikos Prezidentūra (May 27, 2011) //
- Benitez, Jorge. "NATO's Secret Defense Plans for Baltics Revealed by Wikileaks." Atlantic Council (December 07, 2010) // http://www.acus.org/natosource/natos-secret-defense-plans-baltics-revealed-wikileaks (accessed May 20, 2011)
- Conry, Barbara. "U.S. ‘Global Leadership’: A Euphemism for World Policeman." Cato Policy Analysis No. 267 (February 5, 1997) // http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa-267.html (accessed May 20, 2011).
- Deputy Secretary Talbott Address to the Paasikivi Society (January 21, 1998) //
- "Disquiet on the Eastern Front. Can a Distracted America Remain a Bulwark for Eastern Europe?" The Economist (November 26, 2009) //
- Fact Sheet: Baltic American Partnership Fund. Federation of American Scientists (January 16, 1998) //
- Feffer, John. "U.S.-Russian Relations: Avoiding a Cold Peace." Foreign Policy in Focus Vol. 1, No. 15 (November 1996) // http://www.fpif.org/reports/us-russian_relations_avoiding_a_cold_peace (accessed May 20, 2011).
- Feffer, John. "Containment Lite. U.S. Policy toward Russia and its Neighbors." Foreign Policy in Focus (October/November 2001) // http://www.fpif.org/articles/containment_lite_us_policy_toward_russia_and_its_neighbors (accessed May 20, 2011).
- Hansen, Birthe, and Bertel Heurlin. The Baltic States in World Politics. Richmond: Curzon, 1998.
- Hillary Clinton Remarks with Lithuanian Prime Minister Andrius Kubilius after their Meeting (May 6, 2010) //
- International Security Assistance Force (ISAF): Key Facts and Figures. ISAF (November 15, 2010) //
- JAV Valstybės sekretorės laiške - parama Lietuvos Vyriausybės pastangoms stiprinti energetinį saugumą ir regioninės AE statybai. LR Užsienio reikalų ministerija (April 29, 2011) //
- Kanet, Roger E., and Alexander V. Kozhemiakin. The foreign policy of the Russian federation. London: MacMillan, 1997.
- Laurinavičius, Česlovas, Egidijus Motieka, and Nortautas Statkus. Baltijos valstybių geopolitikos bruožai. Vilnius, 2005.
- "Lavrov Says Russia-NATO Antimissile Cooperation is Critical ‘Test’." NTI (May 23, 2011) //
- Legvold, Robert. "Meeting the Russian Challenge in the Obama Era": 1-22. For: Vinod K. Aggarwal and Kristi Govella, eds. Responding to a Resurgent Russia: Russian Policy and Responses from the European Union and the United States (Springer, 2011) // http://www.amacad.org/russia/meetingChallenge.pdf (accessed May 20, 2011).
- Lucas, Edvard. "Thanks to Poland, the Alliance Will Defend the Baltics." The Economist (January 14, 2010) // http://www.economist.com/node/15268095?story_id=15268095&fsrc=nwl (accessed May 20, 2011).
- National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement (February 1995) //
- National Security Strategy. The White House (May 2010) //
- Penkioliktosios Lietuvos Respublikos Vyriausybės veiklos programa. No. XI-52 (December 9, 2008) //
- Pickering, Thomas R. "Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs." Keynote Address at the Conference on Baltic Sea Security and Cooperation. Stockholm, Sweden (October 19, 2000) // http://1997-2001.state.gov/www/policy_remarks/2000/001019_pickering_bssc.html (accessed May 20, 2011).
- "President Obama: Now is Time for US and West to Lead." BBC.co.uk (May 25, 2011) //
- Presidents and Secretaries of State Foreign Travels. Department of State (June 15, 2000) //
- Press Conference by President Clinton, President Ulmanis of Latvia, and President Meri of Estonia (June 6, 1994) //
- Remarks by President Barack Obama. Hradcany Square, Prague, Czech Republic (April 5, 2009) //
- Rozoff, Rick. "Baltic States: Pentagon's Training Grounds for Afghan and Future Wars" (September 30, 2010) //
- Secretary Clinton on 20th Anniversary of the Baltic Way Reaffirms U.S. Commitment to Strengthen Partnership with Baltic Republics (August 21, 2009) //
- Smith, Martin A. Russia and NATO since 1991. New York: Routhledge, 2006.
- Tarptautinės operacijos. Lietuvos Respublikos Krašto apsaugos ministerija (March 2011) //
- The Basic Provisions of the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation (November 2, 1993) //
- Tsygankov, Andrei P. Russia's Foreign Policy: Change and Continuity in National Identity. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006.
- U.S.-Russian Relations at the Turn of the Century. Report of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace Working Group on U.S.-Russian Relations (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2000).
- Zeuli, Kimberly A., and Vernon W. Ruttan. "U.S. Assistance to the Former Soviet Empire: Toward a Rationale for Foreign Aid." The Journal of Developing Areas Vol. 30, No. 4 (July 1996): 493-524 // http://www.jstor.org/stable/4192598 (accessed May 20, 2011).
Publication order reference