PL EN


2009 | 51 | 1 | 77-118
Article title

Approaches to Ergativity in Indo-Aryan

Title variants
Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
EN
The present paper aims at giving an overview of the basic theories pertaining to the emergence and development of ergativity in Indo-Aryan. It has usually been argued that ergativity could have been derived either from the passive or the originally PIE ergative construction. In addition to these two basic approaches to ergativity in IA, other perspectives are also taken into consideration here, namely the theory which is based on the pragmatic properties of OIA, and the hypothesis of the possible borrowing from the substratum languages. The existing models of the historical scenarios of the emergence of ergativity in IA, including their later mutations, are confronted with the hypothesis of the possible active typology of PIE. The active residues in OIA and its continuants might prove that ergativity arose due to the transition from the PIE active to the nominative stage attested in the daughter languages.
Keywords
Year
Volume
51
Issue
1
Pages
77-118
Physical description
Dates
published
2009-01-01
online
2010-01-14
Contributors
  • Institute of Linguistics, Adam Mickiewicz University, al. Niepodległości 4, PL - 61-874 Poznań
References
  • Abraham Werner, Kulikov Leonid (eds.). 1999. Tense-Aspect, Transitivity and Causativity: Essays in Honor of Vladimir Nedjalkov. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 21-42.
  • Abraham Werner, Leisö Larisa (eds.). 2006. Passivization and Typology. Form and Function. Amsterdam-Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  • Allen W. Sidney. 1964. "Transitivity and Possession." Language 40, 337-343.[Crossref]
  • Andersen Paul Kent. 1985. "Die grammatische Kategorie Passiv im Altindischen: Ihre Funktion." In: Schlerath 1985: 47-57.
  • Andersen Paul Kent. 1986a. "Die ta-Partizipialkonstruktion bei Aśoka: Passiv oder Ergativ?" Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 99, 75-96.
  • Andersen Paul Kent. 1986b. "The Genitive Agent in Rigvedic Passive Constructions." In: Collectanea linguistica in honorem Adami Heinz. Prace Komisji Językoznawstwa 53. Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków-Gdańsk-Łódź: Wydawnictw Polskiej Akademii Nauk, 9-13.
  • Anderson Stephen R. 1977. "On the Mechanisms by which Languages Become Ergative." In: Li 1977: 217-264.
  • Anderson Gregory, Gurevich Olga. 2005. "Towards a Typology of Version: Formal and Functional Perspectives." Chicago Linguistic Society 41. http://www.livingtongues.org/papers.html.
  • Bashir Elena. 1999. "The Urdu and Hindi Ergative Postposition ne: its Changing Role in the Grammar." The Yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics 1999: 11-36.
  • Bāsutkar M. Mā. 1985. Hindī-marāthī kriyā padband. Āgrā: Kendrīy Hindī Samsthān.
  • Bauer Brigitte. 2000. Archaic Syntax in Indo-European. Berlin-New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Bednarczuk Leszek (ed.). 1986. Języki indoeuropejskie. Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe.
  • Beekes Robert S.P. 1995. Comparative Indo-European Linguistics. Amsterdam-Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  • Benveniste Emil. 1952. "La construction passive du parfait transitif." Bulletin de la Société de Linguistique de Paris 48(1) [= 1974: 192-202].
  • Benveniste Emil. [1974] 1966. Obščaja lingvistika. Moskva: Izdatel'stvo Progress. (Russian translation of Problèmes de linguistique générale. Paris: Editions Gallimard).
  • Bhaskararao Peri, Karumuri Venkata Subbarao (eds.). 2004. Non-nominal Subjects. Vol. 1, 2. Typological Studies in Language 61. ILCAA, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies/University of Delhi.
  • Bloch Jules. 1965. Indo-Aryan from the Vedas to Modern Times. Paris: Adrien Maisonneuve.
  • Bubenik Vit. 1989a. "An Interpretation of Split Ergativity in Indo-Iranian Languages." Diachronica 6(2), 181-212.[Crossref]
  • Bubenik Vit. 1989b. "On the Origins and Elimination of Ergativity in Indo-Aryan Languages." Canadian Journal of Linguistics 34(4), 377-398.
  • Bubenik Vit. 1993. "Morphological and Syntactic Change in Late Middle Indo-Aryan." The Journal of Indo-European Studies 21(3-4), 259-281.
  • Bubenik Vit. 1996a. The Structure and Development of Middle Indo-Aryan Dialects. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
  • Bubenik Vit. 1996b. "Toward a Theory of Syntactic Change." Diachronica 13(1), 155-170.[Crossref]
  • Bubenik Vit. 1998. A Historical Syntax of Late Middle Indo-Aryan (Apabhramśa). Amsterdam-Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  • Bubenik Vit. 2001. "On the Evolution of Diathesis and Aspect During the Middle Indo-Aryan Period." General Linguistics 41, 93-112.
  • Burrow Thomas. 2001 [1955]. The Sanskrit Language. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
  • Butt Miriam. 2005. The Dative-Ergative Connection.
  • Bynon Theodora. 2005. "Evidential, Raised Possessor and the Historical Source of the Ergative Construction in Indo-Iranian." Transactions of the Philological Society 103(1), 1-72.
  • Cardona George. 1970. "The Indo-Iranian Construction Mana (Mama) Kriam." Language 46, 1-12.[Crossref]
  • Cardona George. 2007. "Sanskrit." In: Cardona, Jain 2007: 104-160.
  • Cardona George, Jain Dhanesh (eds.). 2007. The Indo-Aryan Languages. London-New York: Routledge.
  • Cardona George, Suthar Babu. 2007. "Gujarati." In: Cardona, Jain 2007: 659-697.
  • Chatterji Suniti Kumar. 1970 [1926]. The Origin and Development of the Bengali Language. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
  • Chatterji Suniti Kumar. 1960. Indo-Aryan and Hindi. Calcutta: K.L. Mukhopadhyay.
  • Comrie Bernard. 1973. "The Ergative: Variations on a Theme." Lingua 32, 239-253.[Crossref]
  • Comrie Bernard. 1976. Review of Klimov 1973a. Lingua 39, 252-260.
  • Comrie Bernard. 1978. "Ergativity." In: Lehmann 1978: 323-393.
  • Comrie Bernard. 1981. Language Universals and Linguistic Typology. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
  • Das Pradeep Kumar. 2006. Grammatical Agreement in Hindi-Urdu and its Varieties. München: Lincom Europa.
  • Debrunner Albert. 1954. Altindische Grammatik. Band II, 2: Die Nominalsufixe. Götingen: Vandenhock & Ruprecht.
  • Delbrück Berthold. 1874. Das altindische Verbum aus den Hymnen des Rigveda. Halle: Verlag der Buchhandlung des Waisenhauses.
  • Delbrück Berthold. 1876. Altindische Tempuslehre. Halle: Verlag der Buchhandlung des Waisenhauses.
  • Delbrück Berthold. 1888. Altindische Syntax. Halle: Verlag der Buchhandlung des Waisenhauses.
  • Deshpande Madhav M., Hook Peter Edwin (eds.). 1979. Aryan and Non-Aryan in India. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Center for South Asian and Southeast Asian Studies.
  • Dixon Robert M.W. 1972. The Dyirbal Language of North Qeensland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Dixon Robert M.W. (ed.). 1976. Grammatical Categories in Australian Languages. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.
  • Dixon Robert M.W. 1979. "Ergativity." Language 55, 59-138.[Crossref]
  • Dixon Robert M.W. 1994. Ergativity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Edelman Džoj I. 1990. Sravnitel'naja grammatika vostočnoiranskix jazykov: Morfologija. Elementy sintaksisa. Moskva: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka."
  • Elizarenkova Tatiana Jakovlevna. 1967. "Ergativnaja konstrukcija v novoindijskix jazykax." In: Žirmunskij 1967: 116-125.
  • Gair James W. 1970. Colloquial Sinhalese Clause Structures. The Hague: Mouton.
  • Gair James W. 1976. "Is Sinhala a Subject Language." In: Verma 1976, 39-64.
  • Gair James W. 2007. "Sinhala." In: Cardona, Jain 2007: 766-817.
  • Gamkrelidze Thomas V., Ivanov Vyatsheslav V. 1984. Indoevropejskij jazyk i indoevropejcy. Tifilis: Publishing House of the Tibilisi State University.
  • Gonda Jan. 1951. Remarks on the Sanskrit Passive. Leiden: E.J. Brill.
  • Gonda Jan. 1960a. "Reflections on the Indo-European Medium I." Lingua 9, 30-67.
  • Gonda Jan. 1960b. "Reflections on the Indo-European Medium II." Lingua 9, 175-193.
  • Hock Hans Heinrich. 1986a. "P-oriented Construction in Sanskrit." In: Krishnamurti et al. 1986: 15-26.
  • Hock Hans Heinrich. 1986b. "The Origin of Modern Indo-Aryan Ergative Constructions Revisited." Abstract of the paper presented at International Conference on Historical Linguistics 2007 in Quebec. http://www.ichl2007.uqam.ca/pdf/booklet_abstracts.pdf.
  • Jamison Stephanie W. 1979a. "Remarks on the Expression of Agency with the Passive in Vedic and Indo-European." Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 93, 196-219.
  • Jamison Stephanie W. 1979b. "The Case of Agent in Indo-European." Die Sprache 25, 129-143.
  • Jamison Stephanie W. 1990. "The Tense of the Predicated Past Participle in Vedic and Beyond." Indo-Iranian Journal 33, 1-19.
  • Jha Subhadra. 1958. The Formation of the Maithili Language. London: Luzac.
  • Kachru Yamuna. 1986. "The Syntax of Dakkhini: A Study in Language Variation and Language Change." In: Krishnamurti et al. 1986, 165-173.
  • Kachru Yamuna. 1987. "Ergativity, Subjecthood and Topicality in Hindi-Urdu." Lingua 71, 223-238.[Crossref]
  • Kāmtāprasād Guru. 2003 [1920]. Hindī vykāran, Vārānasī: Nāgarīpracārinī sabhā.
  • Kellog Samuel Henry. 1972 [1875]. A Grammar of the Hindi Language. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal.
  • Kent Roland G. 1953. Old Persian: Grammar, Texts, Lexicon (2nd ed.). New Haven: American Oriental Society.
  • Khokhlova Ludmila V. 2002. "Syntactic Peculiarities of Rajasthani." Paper read at the 17th European Conference on Modern South Asian Studies, Heidelberg, September 9-14. http://www.iaas.msu.ru/pub_on/khokhlova.
  • Khubchandani Lachman. M. 2007. "Sindhi." In: Cardona, Jain 2007: 622-658.
  • Klaiman Miriam H. 1978. "Arguments Against a Passive Origin of the IA Ergative." Chicago Linguistic Society: Papers from the 14th Regional Meeting, 204-216.
  • Klaiman Miriam H. 1987. "Mechanisms of Ergativity in South Asia." Lingua 71, 61-102.[Crossref]
  • Klimov Georgij Andreevič. 1972. "K xarakteristike jazykov aktvnogo stroja." Voprosy Jazykoznanija 4, 3-13.
  • Klimov Georgij Andreevič. 1973a. Očerk obščej teorii èrgativnosti. Moskva: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka."
  • Klimov Georgij Andreevič. 1973b. "Tipologija jazykov aktivnogo stroja i rekoonstrukcija protoindoevropejskogo." Izvestija Akademii Nauk SSSR, Serija literatury i jazyka 32, 442-447.
  • Klimov Georgij Andreevič. 1976. "Voprosy kontensivno-tipologičeskogo opisanija jazykov." In: Serebrennikov, Jarceva 1976: 122-146.
  • Klimov Georgij Andreevič. 1977. Tipologija jazykov aktivnogo stroja. Moskva: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka."
  • Klimov Georgij Andreevič. 1979. "On the Position of the Ergative Type in Typological Classification." In: Plank 1979: 327-332.
  • Klimov Georgij Andreevič, Alekseev Mixail E. 1980. Tipologija kavkaskich jazykov. Moskva: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka."
  • Klimov Georgij Andreevič. 1983. Principy kontensivnoj tipologii. Moskva: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka."
  • Klimov Georgij Andreevič, Edel'man Džoj I. 1970. Jazyk burushaski. Moskva: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", Glavnaja Redakcija Vostocnoj literatury.
  • Korolev I.I. 1965. Jazyk nepali. Moskva: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka."
  • Koul Omkar N. 2007. "Kashmiri." In: Cardona, Jain 2007: 895-952.
  • Krishnamurti Bh., Masica Collin P., Sinha Anjani K. (eds.). 1986. South Asian Languages. Structure, Covergence Diglossia. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
  • Kulikov Leonid 1998a. "Vedic -ya-presents: Semantic and the Place of Stress." In: Meid 1998: 341-349.
  • Kulikov Leonid. 1998b "Passive, Anticausative and Classification of Verbs: the Case of Vedic." In: Kulikov, Vater 1998: 139-153.
  • Kulikov Leonid. 1999. "Split Causativity: Remarks on Correlations Between Transitivity, Aspect, and Tense." In: Abraham, Kulikov 1999: 21-42.
  • Kulikov Leonid. 2001. "Between Passive and Reflexive. The Vedic Presents with the Suffix -ya-." Groninger Arbeiten zur germanistischen Linguistik 44, 13-20.
  • Kulikov Leonid. 2006. "Passive and Middle in Indo-European. Reconstructing the Early Vedic Passive Paradigm." In: Abraham, Leisö 2006: 62-81.
  • Kulikov Leonid, Vater Heinz (eds.). 1998. Typology of Verbal Categories. Papers presented to Vladimir Nedjalkov on the occasion of his 70th birthday. Linguistische Arbeiten 382. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
  • Kuryłowicz Jerzy. 1946. "Ergativnost'i stadial'nost' v jazyke." Izvestija Akademii Nauk SSSR, Serija literatury i jazyka 5, 387-393.
  • Kuryłowicz Jerzy. 1964a. "On the Methods of Internal Reconstruction." Proceedeings of the Ninth International Congress of Linguists, Cambridge, Massachusetts. London: Mouton, 9-36.
  • Kuryłowicz Jerzy. 1964b. Inflectional Categories in Indo-European. Heidelberg: Carl Winter.
  • Kuryłowicz Jerzy. 1987. Studia językoznawcze. Warszawa: PWN.
  • Lehmann Winfred P. 1976. "From Topic to Subject in Indo-European." In: Li 1976, 447-456.
  • Lehmann Winfred P. (ed.). 1978. Syntactic Typology: Studies in the Phenomenology of Language. Texas: University of Texas Press.
  • Lehmann Winfred P. 1989. "Problems in Proto-Indo-European Grammar: Residues from Pre-Indo-European Active Structure." General Linguistics 29(4), 228-246.
  • Lehmann Winfred P. 1995. Residues of Pre-Indo-European Active Structure and Their Implications for the Relationship among the Dialects. Innsbruck: Insbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft, Vorträge und Kleinere Schriften 61.
  • Li Charles N. (ed.). 1976. Subject and Topic. New York: Academic Press.
  • Li Charles N. (ed.). 1977. Mechanisms of Syntactic Change. Austin-London: University of Texas Press.
  • Macdonell Arthur A. 1968 [1910]. Vedic Grammar. Delhi: Indological Book House.
  • Macdonell Arthur A. 1999 [1916]. A Vedic Grammar for Students. New Delhi: D.K. Printworld.
  • Magier David. 1983. Topics in the Grammar of Marwari. Berkeley, University of California PhD thesis.
  • Manning Christopher D. 1996. Ergativity. Argument Structure and Grammatical Relations. Stanford: CSLI Publications.
  • Masica Colin P. 1979. "Aryan and Non-Aryan Elements in North Indian Agriculture." In: Deshpande, Hook 1979: 55-151.
  • Masica Colin P. 1993. The Indo-Aryan Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Meid Wolfgang (ed.). 1998. Sprache und Kultur der Indogermanen. Akten der X. Fachtagung der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft, 22.-28. September 1996.
  • Miltner Vladimir 1965. "From OIA Passive to NIA Active." Asian and African Studies 1, 143-146.
  • Miltner Vladimir. 1977. "Ergative Constructions in Hindi and Other NIA Languages." Archiv Orientalni 45, 237-244.
  • Montaut Annie. 2004a. "Oblique Main Arguments in Hindi/Urdu as Localizing Predications." In: Bhaskararao, Karumuri 2004, Vol. 2: 33-56.
  • Montaut Annie. 2004b. A Grammar of Hindi. München: Lincom Europa.
  • Neu Erich. 1985. "Das frühindogermanische Diathesensystem. Funktion und Geschichte." In: Schlerath 1985: 275-295.
  • Oberlies Thomas. 2005. A Historical Grammar of Hindi. Grazer Vergleichende Arbeiten, Band 19. Graz: Leykam.
  • Oertel Hanns. 1937. "Zu den Kasusvariationen in der vedischen Prosa." Sitzungberichte der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philos.-Hist. Abteilung, 1937.8. Bd. 1.
  • Oertel Hanns. 1938. "Zu den Kasusvariationen in der vedischen Prosa." Sitzungberichte der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philos.-Hist. Abteilung, 1938.6, Bd. 2.
  • Oertel Hanns. 1939. "Zu den Kasusvariationen in der vedischen Prosa." Sitzungberichte der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philos.-Hist. Abteilung, 1939.6, Bd. 3.
  • Olphen van Herman H. 1978. "Ergative and Causative in Hindi." Orbis 24, 184-204.
  • Pandharipande Rajeshwari. 2007. "Marathi." In: Cardona, Jain 2007: 698-728.
  • Pandharipande Rajeshwari, Kachru Yamuna. 1977. "Relational Grammar, Ergativity and Hindi-Urdu." Lingua 41, 217-238.[Crossref]
  • Payne John R. 1980. "The Decay of Ergativity in Pamir Languages." Lingua 51, 147-186.[Crossref]
  • Peterson John. 1998. Grammatical Relations in Ali and the Emergence of Ergativity in Indo-Aryan. München: Lincom Europa.
  • Pirejko Lija A. 1967. "K voprosu ob ergativnoj konstrukcii v iranskix jazykax." In: Žirmunskij 1967: 135-141.
  • Pirejko Lija A. 1968. Osnovnyje voprosy ergativnosti na materiale indoiranskich jazykov. Moskva: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka."
  • Pirejko Lija A. 1979. "On the Genesis of the Ergative Construction in Indo-Iranian." In: Plank 1979: 481-488.
  • Plank Frans (ed.). 1979. Ergativity. Towards a Theory of Grammatcal Relations. London: Academic Press.
  • Pray Bruce 1976. "From Passive to Ergative in NIA." In: Verma 1976: 195-211.
  • Ranjan Kar Chitt. 2006. Hindī parasarg. Delhi: B R Publishing Corporation.
  • Redard George (ed.). 1954. Sprachgeschichte und Wortbedeutung, Festschrift Albrecht Debrunner, gewidmet von Schülern, Freunden und Kollegen. Bern: Francke.
  • Redard George (ed.). 1973. Indogermanische und Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft. Fachtagung der Indogermanischen Geselschaft. Wiesbaden: Reichert.
  • Regamey Constantin. 1954. "A propos de la ‘construction ergative’ en indo-aryen moderne." In: Redard 1954: 363-381.
  • Regamey Constantin. 1970. "Le problème de l'ergatif." Bulletin du Cercle Linguistique de Copenhague, 1941-1965, 8-31, 111-112.
  • Renou Louis. 1952. Grammaire de la langue védique. Paris: IAC.
  • Rumsey Alan. 1987. "The Chimera of Prot-Indo-European Ergativity." Lingua 71, 297-318.[Crossref]
  • Savčenko A.N. 1967. "Ergativnaja konstrukcija predlozenija v praindoevropejskom jazyke." In: Žirmunskij 1967, 74-90.
  • Savel'eva L.V. 1965. Jazyk Gudžarati. Moskva: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka."
  • Saxena Baburam. 1971 [1937]. Evolution of Awadhi. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
  • Schlerath Benfried (ed.). 1985. Grammatische Kategorien. Funktion und Geschichte. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag.
  • Schmalstieg William R. 1989. "The Genitive Agent vs. the Instrumental of Means an Old Idea Worth Retaining." General Linguistics 29(4), 272-275.
  • Schmidt Karl Horst. 1963. "Zum Agens bei Passiv." Indogermanische Forschungen 68, 1-12.
  • Schmidt Karl Horst. 1964. "Das Perfektum in indogermanischen Sprachen: Wandel einer Verbalkategorie." Glotta 42, 1-18.
  • Schmidt Karl Horst. 1973. "Transitiv und Intransitiv." In: Redard 1973: 107-124.
  • Schmidt Karl Horst. 1977. "Probleme der Ergativkonstruktion." Münchenr Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft 36, 97-116.
  • Schmidt Karl Horst. 1979. "Reconstructing Active and Ergative Stages of Pre-Indo-European." In: Plank 1979: 333-345.
  • Schmidt Ruth Laila. 2007. "Urdu." In: Cardona, Jain 2007, 286-350.
  • Schwyzer Eduard, Debrunner Albrecht. 1950. Griechische Grammatik II. München: C.H. Beck'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.
  • Serebrennikov B.A., Jarceva V.N. (eds.). 1976. Voprosy opisanija jazykov mira. Moskva: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka".
  • Sieklucka Anna. 1998. Język pendźabski. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Dialog.
  • Silverstein Michael. 1976. "Hierarchy of Features and Ergativity." In: Dixon 1976: 112-171.
  • Sihler Andrew L. 1995. New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Skalmowski Wojciech. 1974. "Transitive Verb Constructions in the Pamir and Dardic Languages." Studia Indoeuropejskie. Prace Komisji Językoznawstwa 37, 205-212 [= 2004: 89-95].
  • Skalmowski Wojciech. 1976. "Elamite and Akkadian Translations of the Old Persian Periphrastic Perfect." Folia Orientalia 17, 217-229 [= 2004: 17-27].
  • Skalmowski Wojciech. 1986. "Języki nowoirańskie." In: Bednarczuk 1986: 161-216.
  • Skalmowski Wojciech. 2004. Studies in Iranian Linguistics and Philology. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego.
  • Speijer Jacob Samuel. 1998 [1886]. Sanskrit Syntax. Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass Publishers Private Limited.
  • Stefański Witold. 1990. The Diathesis in Indo-European. Poznań: Wydawnictwo UAM.
  • Szemerényi Oswald. 1970. Einführung in die vergleichende Sprachwissenschaft. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesselschaft.
  • Šamatov Azad Nasretdinovič. 1974. Klassičeskij dakxini. Moskva: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka."
  • Tikkanen Bertil. 1987. The Sanskrit Gerund: A Synchronic, Diachronic and Typological Analysis. Studia Orientalia (Helsinki) 62.
  • Tikkanen Bertil. 1988. "On Burushaski and Other Ancient Substrata in Northwest South Asia." Studia Orientalia (Helsinki) 64, 303-325.
  • Trask Larry R. 1979. "On the Origin of Ergativity." In: Plank 1979: 385-404.
  • Tronskij Iosif Moiseevič. 1967. "O donominativnom prošlom indoevropejskix jazykov." In: Žirmunskij 1967: 91-94.
  • Uhlenbeck C.C. 1901. "Agens und Patiens im Kasussystem der indogermanischen Sprachen." Indogermanische Forschungen 12, 170-172.
  • Vaillant André. 1936. "L'ergatif indo-européen." Bulletin de la Société de linguistique de Paris 137, 93-108.
  • Verma Manindra J. (ed.). 1976. The Notion of Subject in South Asian Languages. Madison: University of Wisconsin. (South Asian Studies, Publication Series 2).
  • Verma Manindra J., Mohanan Karavannur Puthanvettil (eds.). 1990. Experiencer Subjects in South Asian Languages. Stanford University: Center for the Study of Language and Information.
  • Whitney William Dwight 1990 [1888]. Sanskrit Grammar. Delhi: Bodhi Leaves Corporation.
  • Witzel Michael. 1999. "Substrate Languages in Old Indo-Aryan (Rgvedic, Middle and Late Vedic)." Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies EJVS 5(1), 1-67.
  • Yegorova R.P. 1971. The Sindhi Language. Moscow: "Nauka" Publishing House.
  • Zakharyin Boris. 1979. "On the Formation of Ergativity in Indo-Aryan and Dardic." Osmania Papers in Linguistics 5, 50-71.
  • Zwolanek Renee. 1987. Merkmale der Ergativkonstruktion und die Hypothese eines indogermanischen Ergativs. European University Studies, Series XXI, Linguistics, Vol. 59. Bern: Peter Lang.
  • Žirmunskij Viktor Maksimovič (ed.). 1967. Ergativnaja konstrukcija predloženija v jazykax različnyx tipov. Leningrad: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka."
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.doi-10_2478_v10122-009-0006-x
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.