Full-text resources of CEJSH and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


2010 | 52 | 1 | 71-80

Article title

Evidentiality, Inferentiality and Mirativity in the Modern Hindi

Selected contents from this journal

Title variants

Languages of publication



The questions of Evidentiality, Inferentiality and Mirativity in Hindi have not been thoroughly investigated so far. So the proposed description in no way can be exhaustive, and the results obtained are just preliminary. The approach adopted is functional, directed from function towards the modes of expression, because these categories in Hindi are rather semantic and functional, than structural and grammatical.The results indicate that all the three domains are semantically close to each other. All of them denote a source of new information, but formally they are very different. Three kinds of Evidentiality - reported evidentials, inferred evidentials and miratives - represent a semantic field with fuzzy structure. The only grammaticalized types of evidentials are inferred evidentials marked by moods. All evidentials are combined with different modal meanings.Some comparisons with other Indo-Aryan languages are made.


Hindi   modality  








Physical description




  • MGIMO University, Moscow, Russia


  • Aikhenvald Alexandray. 2004. Evidentiality. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Barkhudarov Aleksey S., Beskrovnyy Vasiliy M., Zograf Georgiy A. 1998. Poslovitsy i pogovorki Severnoy Indii. Sankt-Peterburg: Tsentr "Peterburgskoye vostokovedeniye."
  • Bashir Elena. 2007. "Evidentiality in South Asian Languages." The Proceedings of the LFG-06 Conference, 30-50. http://cslipublications.stanford.edu/LFG/11/lfg06.html.
  • Bashir Elena. 2009. "Traces of Mirativity in Shina." South Asian Languages Analysis 2009 (SALA XXVIII), Abstracts.
  • Beskrovnyy Vasiliy M., Bykova Elena M., Liperovskiy Vladimir P. (eds.). 1968. Yazyki Indii, Pakistana, Nepala i Tseilona. Moskva: Nauka, Glavnaya redaktsiya vostochnoy literatury.
  • Chernyshev Vladimir A. 1968. "Ob odnom priyeme stilisticheskogo sintaksisa khindi (dvoinoye skazuyemoye)" [Concerning One Method of Stylistic Syntax of Hindi (Double Predicate)]. In: Beskrovnyy et al. 1968: 252-259.
  • Davison Alice. 2007. "Hierarchical Structure and Linear Order: Correlative Clauses in Hindi-Urdu." In: Masica 2007, 211-245.
  • DeLancey Scott. 1997. "Mirativity: The Grammatical Marking of Unexpected Information." Linguistic Typology 1, 33-52.
  • Gambhir Vijay. 1983. "Theme-Focussing in Hindi." Indian Linguistics 44, 1-4, 25-38.
  • Kachru Yamuna. 1986. "The Syntax of Dakkhini: A Study in Language Variation and Language Change." In: Krishnamurti et al. 1986: 165-174.
  • Kachru Yamuna. 2006. Hindi. Amsterdam-Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  • Khrakovskiy Viktor (ed.). 2007. Evidentcial'nos't v yazykakh Evropy i Azii. Sankt-Peterburg: Nauka.
  • Kozintseva Nataliya M. 2007. "Tipologiya kategorii zasvidel'stvovannosti" [Typology of the Category of Evidentiality]. In: Khrakovskiy 2007, 13-26.
  • Krishnamurti Bh., Masica Colin P., Sinha Anjali K. (eds.). 1986. South Asian Languages: Structure, Convergence and Diglossia. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
  • Lazard Gilbert. 1999. "Mirativity, Evidentiality, Mediativity, or other?" Linguistic Typology 3(1), 91-109.
  • Lazard Gilbert. 2001. Études de linguistique générale. Typologie grammaticale. Leuven-Paris: Peeters, 425-441.
  • Liperovskiy Vladimir P. 1964. Kategoriya nakloneniya v sovremennom literaturnom khindi [Category of Mood in Modern Literary Hindi]. Moskva: Nauka.
  • Liperovskiy Vladimir P. 1984. Glagol v yazyke khindi [Verb in the Hindi Language]. Moskva: Nauka.
  • Lönne Dirk W. (ed.). 2003. Tohfa-e-dil, Festschrift Helmut Nespital. Reinbek: Dr. Inge Wezler Verlag fur Orientalische Fachpublikation, 1.
  • Masica Colin P. (ed.). 2007. Old and New Perspectives on South Asian Languages: Grammar and Semantics. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.
  • Meenakshi K. 1986. "The Quotative in Indo-Aryan." In: Krishnamurti et al. 1986: 209-218.
  • Montaut Annie. 2001. "Evidentiality in Indo-Aryan: the Absence of the Hearsay Meaning and the Delimitation of the Category Evidentiality."
  • Montaut Annie. 2003. "On the Evidential Meanings of the Hindi Aorist." In: Lönne 2003: 345-364.
  • Montaut Annie. 2006. "Mirative Meanings as Extensions of Aorist in Hindi/Urdu." In: Singh 2006: 71-86.
  • Peterson John. 2000. "Evidentials, Inferentials and Mirativity in Nepali." Linguistics in the Tibetan-Burman Area 23(2), 13-36.
  • Sigorskiy Alexander A. 2006. "Khindi i russkiy: nekotoryye aspekty grammatiki i funktsionorovaniya" [Hindi and Russian: Some Aspects of Grammar and Functioning]. In: Vedenina 2006: 138-151.
  • Singh Rajendra (ed.). 2006. The Yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics 2006. Berlin-New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Singh Udaya Narayan. 1980. "Bole: An Unresolved Problem in Bengali Syntax." Indian Linguistics 41(1), 188-195.
  • Vedenina L'udmila G. (ed). 2006. Lingvostranovedeniye: metody analiza, tekhnologiya obucheniya, 1. Moskva: MGIMO-Universitet.
  • Zograf Georgiy A. 1998. "O yazyke poslovits" [About the Language of Proverbs]. In: Barkhudarov et al. 1998: 213-215.

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.