Sport: the Treasure of Temperance
Languages of publication
The modern lifestyle, with its emphasis on enjoyment and immoderation, could lead a human being to the point where he is not a master of himself anymore. Inner desires and outer pressures force a man to take those actions that are not in accordance with his rational human nature and that are not good for him. According to the classical philosophical view of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, this clearly shows the inner slavery of modern man. Temperance, moderation or asceticism today seem old fashioned and unnecessary virtues; nevertheless, it is obvious that many problems of modern societies have roots in the absence of these virtues. These problems include a high percentage of obese population, different addictions and other health problems concerning the immoderate life style. It seems that nowadays enjoyment is the highest imperative for the individual and for society as a whole. However, these days it is possible to recognize the revival of these virtues. This paper points out the case of sport where these virtues are still cultivated and highly appreciated. At first this may seem somehow strange, because many times sport is perceived as connected with pleasure, fun and excess, but in reality sport demands much of participants. It could be even said that professional athletes are modern ascetics, and a big part of recreational sport is all but not enjoyment. In conclusion we can assert that virtues acquired in the field of sport can indeed help a human being to live a better life in general.
- Aquinas, T. (1225-1274). Summa Theologicae. Public Domain. Retrieved May 25, 2010, from
- Aristotle (2004). Nicomachean Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University press.
- Augustine, De civitate dei. London: Aris & Phillips.
- Bentham, J. (1996). An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
- Curzer, H. J. (1997). Aristotle's account of the virtue of temperance in Nicomachean Ethics III.10-11. Journal of the History of Philosophy, 35(1), 5-25.
- Fritz Cates, D. (2002). The Virtue of Temperance. In J. S. Pope (Ed.), The Ethics of Aquinas (321-339). Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
- Gough, R. W. (1996). Character is Everything: Promoting Ethical Excellence in Sports. Wadsworth Publishing.
- Hall, T. C. (2003). Asceticism. In Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, Part 3. New York: Kessinger Publishing.
- Hosta, M. (2007). Etika športa. Manifest za 21. stoletje. Ljubljana: Fakulteta za šport.
- Hosta, M. (2009). Od fitnessa preko welnessa in selfnessa k playnessu. Šport, (3-4), 12.
- Kent, B. (2002). Habits and Virtues. In J. S. Pope (Ed.), The Ethics of Aquinas (116-130). Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
- Kocijančič, G. (2002). Platon. Celje: Mohorjeva družba.
- Pieper, J. (1965). The Four Cardinal Virtues. New York: A Helen and Kurt Wolff Book.
- Plato (2004). Republic. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company.
- Quinn, P. L. (1998). Asceticism. In Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Version 1.0). London and New York: Routledge.
- Reale, G. (2002). Zgodovina antične filozofije: Platon in Aristotel. Ljubljana: Studia humanitatis.
- Stevenson, L., Haberman, D. L. (2009). Ten theories of human nature (5th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Sweet, W. E. (1987). Sport and Recreation in Ancient Greece: A source book with translation, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.
- Taylor, C. (2003). The Ethics of Authenticity. London: Harvard University Press.
- Tugwell, S. (1988). Albert & Thomas: Selected Writings. New York: Paulist Press.
- Weiss, P. (1969). Sport: A Philosophic Inquiry. Southern Illinois: University Press.
Publication order reference