2011 | 1 | 1 | 44-62
Article title

(De-) Regulating the Creative Economy

Title variants
Languages of publication
Drastic changes have occurred throughout the past century and the world community is struggling to find the exact concepts to describe, understand and, possibly, govern them. One of the concepts used to describe these changes is the so-called "creative economy". Even though the concept is becoming more frequently used, it lacks a precise definition and its meaning remains elusive. Moreover, the proliferation of related concepts, such as the "experience economy", the "cultural economy", the "knowledge-based economy" and the "creative and cultural industries", further obscures its precise scope and meaning. These concepts are, however, no less elusive, particularly because they are of a dual or oxymoronic character, which variably combines aspects of culture, creativity and intellectual creation on the one hand with those of the economy, business, trade and commerce on the other.In sum, the conceptual uncertainties also translate into major difficulties in finding appropriate regulatory responses in the sphere of law. The aim of the present article is therefore to cast light on the meaning of the concept of the creative economy with a view to paving the way for its better and more efficient regulation in the legal sphere. To this end, the first part offers a comprehensive interpretative analysis of the "creative economy" with a view to establishing its value to the present global governance debate. Based on the evidence that designates the creative economy as an evolving concept requiring a multidisciplinary model for the formulation of an adequate approach in law- and policymaking, the second part discusses some of the creative economy's major implications in the sphere of law. In this regard, several regulatory examples appear to advocate the abandonment of the conventional in favour of a more holistic method of regulation. The article concludes with some recommendations that are deemed useful for further debate and research in this area, which ultimately may contribute to the formulation of the kind of creative laws that are needed for the successful regulation of the creative economy in the future.
Physical description
  • Faculty of Law, University of Macau, Av. Tomas Pereira S315, Taipa, MACAU
  • Adorno, Th.W., "Culture and Administration" in Th.W. Adorno, The Culture Industry: Selected Essays on Mass Culture (London: Routledge, 1991) 107.
  • Adorno, Th.W., The Culture Industry: Selected Essays on Mass Culture (London: Routledge, 1991).
  • Albertson, A.C., Creative Immortality: a Trinity Rule in Social and Political Economy. The Creative Element of Mankind, the Basis of All Wealth (New York: Economic Publishing Co., 1912).
  • Aman, Jr., A.C., "The Globalizing State: A Future-Oriented Perspective on the Public/Private Distinction, Federalism, and Democracy" (1998) 31 Vand. J. Transnat'l L. 769.
  • Balassa, B., The Theory of Economic Integration (London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd, 1962).
  • Benhamou, F., L'économie de la culture (Paris: La Découverte, 2001).
  • Brandenburger, A.M. & Nalebuff, B.J., Co-opetition: A Revolution Mindset That Combines Competition and Cooperation: The Game Theory Strategy That's Changing the Game of Business (New York: Doubleday, 1996).
  • Chow, C.S.F., Tang, E.P. Y. & Fu, I.S.F., "Global Marketers' Dilemma: Whether to Translate the Brand Name into Local Language" (2007) 20 Journal of Global Marketing 25.
  • DeFillippi, R., Grabher, G. & Jones, C., "Introduction to Paradoxes of Creativity: Managerial and Organizational Challenges in the Cultural Economy" (2007) 28 Journal of Organizational Behavior 511.[Crossref]
  • Delimatsis, P., "The Fragmentation of International Trade Law" (2011) 45 Journal of World Trade 87.
  • Dupuy P.-M., "A Doctrinal Debate in the Globalisation Era: On the "Fragmentation" of International Law" (2007) 1 European Journal of Legal Studies 1.
  • European Commission, Stronger Community action in the cultural sector, EC Bulletin Supp. 6/82.
  • European Commission, Unlocking the Potential of Cultural and Creative Industries (Green Paper), COM(2010) 183 final (April 27, 2010.
  • G20, Leaders Statement, The Pittsburgh Summit (September 24-25, 2009.
  • Handy, C., The Age of Paradox (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1994).
  • Haque Khondker, H., "Glocalization as Globalization: Evolution of a Sociological Concept" (2004) 1 Bangladesh e-Journal of Sociology 1-9.
  • Hesmondhalgh, D., The Cultural Industries (London: Sage, 2002).
  • Howkins, J. & Valantin, R.L., Development and the Information Age: Four Global Scenarios for the Future of Information and Communication Technology (Ottawa: International Development Research Centre, 1997).
  • Howkins, J., Creative Ecologies: Where Thinking Is a Proper Job (New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2010).
  • Howkins, J., The Creative Economy: How People Make Money From Ideas (London: Penguin, 2002).
  • Johnson, M.L., "Mind, Metaphor, Law", (2006) 58 Mercer Law Review 845.
  • Jones, A., Piracy: The Intellectual Property Wars from Gutenberg to Gates (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009).
  • Kong, L. & O'Connor, J., Creative Economies, Creative Cities: Asian-European Perspectives (Dordrecht: Springer, 2009).
  • Lane, R., "New Community competences under the Maastricht Treaty" 1993 30 C.M.L.R. 939.
  • Lang, A.T.F., "Reflecting on ‘Linkage’: Cognitive and Institutional Change in the International Trading System" (2007) 70 The Modern Law Review 523.
  • Lao Tzu, Tao Te Ching (Ware: Wordsworth Classics, 1997).
  • Machlup, F., The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the United States (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962).
  • Neuwirth, R.J., "A Constitutional Tribute to Global Governance: Overcoming the Chimera of the Developing-Developed Country Dichotomy", 2010 EUI WP LAW 2010/20.
  • Neuwirth, R.J., "International Law and the Public/Private Law Distinction" (2000) 55 Austrian J. Pub. & Int'l L. R. 393.
  • Neuwirth, R.J., "The "Culture and Trade Debate" Continues: The UNESCO Convention in Light of the WTO Reports in China - Publications and Audiovisual Products: Between Amnesia or Déjà Vu?" (2010) 44 Journal of World Trade 1333.
  • Neuwirth, R.J., The Cultural Industries in International Trade Law: Insights from the NAFTA, the WTO, and the EU (Hamburg: Dr. Kovač, 2006).
  • Nora, P., "Between Memory and History: Les lieux de Mémoire" (1989) 26 Representations 7.[Crossref]
  • Pine, J.B. & Gilmore, J.H., The Experience Economy: Work is Theatre & Every Business a Stage (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1999).
  • Raustiala, K. & Sprigman, Ch., "The Piracy Paradox: Innovation and Intellectual Property in Fashion Design" (2006) 92 Virginia Law Review 1687.
  • Report of the Secretary-General, In Larger Freedom: Towards Development, Security and Human Rights for All, UN GA Doc. A/59/2005 (March 21, 2005.
  • Richter, F., ed., Ciceros Reden gegen Catilina (Liepzig: B.G. Teubner, 1869).
  • Rifkin, J., The Age of Access: How the Sift from Ownership to Access is Transforming Capitalism (London: Penguin, 2000).
  • Roco, M.C. & Bainbridge, W.S., Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance: Nanotechnology, Biotechnology, Information Technology and Cognitive Science, NSF/DOC-sponsored report, National Science Foundation (June 2002).
  • Romano, C.P.R., "The Proliferation of International Judicial Bodies: The Pieces of the Puzzle" 1999 31 N.Y.U. J. Int'l L. & Pol. 709.
  • Rooney, D., Hearn, G. & Ninan, A., Handbook on the Knowledge Economy (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2005).
  • Rudder, C.E., "Private Governance as Public Policy: A Paradigmatic Shift" (2008) 70 The Journal of Politics 899.
  • Schumpeter, J.A., Capitalism, Socialism, Democracy (London: Routledge, 1976).
  • Schwabach, A., "Intellectual Property Piracy: Perception and Reality in China, the United States, and Elsewhere" (2008) 2 Journal of International Media & Entertainment Law 65.
  • Sen, A., Development as Freedom (Oxford University Press, Oxford 1999).
  • Shankar Jha, P., The Twilight of the Nation State: Globalisation, Chaos and War (New Delhi: Vistaar, 2006).
  • Sutherland, P. et al, eds., The Future of the WTO: Addressing Institutional Challenges in the New Millennium (Geneva: WTO, 2004).
  • Throsby, D., Economics and Culture (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).
  • Trachtman, J.P., "Trade and … Problems, Cost-Benefit Analysis and Subsidiarity" (1998) 9 E.J.I.L. 32.
  • United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), World Creative Economy Report 2010: Creative Economy: A Feasible Development Option, available at:
  • United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), World Creative Economy Report 2008: The challenge of assessing the creative economy towards informed policy-making, available at:
  • United Nations High Level Panel on Coherence, Delivering as one: Report of the High-level Panel on United Nations System-wide Coherence in the Areas of Development, Humanitarian Assistance and the Environment, (UN GA A/61/583 (20 November 2006.
  • Wenzel, J.W., "The Rhetorical View of Argumentation: Exploring a Paradigm" (1987) 1 Argumentation 73.
  • Young, A.A., "Economics and War: A Presidential Address" (1926) 16 The American Economic Review 1.
  • Yu, P.K., "Four Common Misconceptions About Copyright Piracy", Michigan State University, DCL College of Law, Public Law & Legal Theory Working Paper Series, Research Paper No. 01-16.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.