The Analysis and Synthesis of Strategic Management Research in the Third Sector from Early 2000 Through to Mid-2009
Languages of publication
The purpose of this paper is to analyse the contemporary literature on strategic management in non-profit organizations. The area at hand is divided into five categories: modern management and strategic management approaches/theories; analysis of the roles of externalities and internalities in the Third Sector; review of how strategic management has been applied for non-profit organizations; review of applications and enhanced identification of one or more strategies utilised by non-profit organizations; application of specific methods and tools in strategic management. Four dilemmas faced by modern management theory serve as a synthetic axis. First, how can the existing commercial management concepts and techniques be best adapted to the realities of the non-profit sector? Secondly, which of the established schools of strategic management is the most relevant one for non-profits? In fact, is it appropriate to look for a brand new school of thought? Thirdly, and this is again related to academic pursuits, what coherent theory can explain the efficiency of non-profit organizations. Fourthly, there is the dilemma what strategy to employ when faced with a choice between the willingness and the need to apply competitive strategies and the co-operative strategy in the third sector.
- Alfirević N., Pavičić J., Adžić B., Šimurina J., Bratić V. - The Balanced Scorecard (Bsc) Approach to Performance of a Nonprofit in the Transition Environment: the Case of the Commercial Trade Union of Croatia (Ctu) [at] Conference Proceedings: International Conference Enterprise in Transition, 2005, pp. 5-19.
- Balser D., McClusky J. - Managing stakeholder relationships and nonprofit organization effectiveness [in] Nonprofit Management & Leadership 15 (3), 2005, pp. 295-315.
- Barman E. A. - Asserting Difference: The Strategic Response of Nonprofit Organizations to Competition [in] Social Forces 80 (4), 2002, pp. 1191-1223.[Crossref]
- Bart C. K., Tabone J. C. - Mission statements in Canadian not-for-profit hospitals: Does process matter? [in] Health care management review 25 (2), 2000, pp. 45-63.[Crossref]
- Berrett T., Slack T. - A Framework for the Analysis of Strategic Approaches Employed by Non-profit Sport Organizations in Seeking Corporate Sponsorship [in] Sport Management Review 4 (1), 2001, pp. 21-45.[Crossref]
- Bratt R. G. - Challenges for Nonprofit Housing Organizations Created by the Private Housing Market [in] Journal of Urban Affairs 31 (1), 2009, pp. 67-96.[Crossref]
- Brown W. A., Iverson J. O. - Exploring Strategy and Board Structure in Nonprofit Organizations [in] Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Quarterly 33 (3), 2004, pp. 377-400.
- Bryson J. M. - Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco 1995.
- Bryson J. M. - A Strategic Planning Process for Public and Non - profit Organizations [in] Long range planning 21 (1), 1988, pp. 73-81.[Crossref]
- Bryson J. M., Ackermann F., Eden C. - Putting the Resource-Based View of Strategy and Distinctive Competencies to Work in Public Organizations [in] Public administration review 67 (4), 2007, pp. 702-717.[Crossref]
- Carman J. G., Fredericks K. A. - Nonprofits and Evaluation: Empirical Evidence from the Field [in] New Directions for Evaluation (119), 2008, pp. 51-71.
- Carney M. - Middle manager involvement in strategy development in not-for profit organizations: the director of nursing perspective - how organizational structure impacts on the role [in] Journal of nursing management 12 (1), 2004, pp. 13-21.
- Chew C. - Positioning and its strategic relevance [in] Public Management Review 8 (2), 2006, pp. 333-350.[Crossref]
- Chew C., Osborne S. P. - Identifying the Factors That Influence Positioning Strategy in U. K. Charitable Organizations That Provide Public Services: Toward an Integrating Model [in] Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Quarterly 38 (1), 2009, pp. 29-50.
- Chien-Tzu Tsai, Pao-Long Chang, Tzu-Chuan Chou, Yih-Ping Cheng. - An integration framework of innovation assessment for the knowledge-intensive service industry [in] International Journal of Technology Management 30 (1), 2005, pp. 85-104.
- Cochran D. S., David F. R., Gibson C. K. - A Framework for Developing an Effective Mission Statement [in] Journal of Business Strategies 25 (2), 2008, pp. 27-39.
- Courtney R. - Strategic Management for Voluntary Nonprofit Organizations. Routledge: London and New York 2002.
- Crittenden W. F. - Spinning Straw into Gold: the Tenuous Strategy, Funding, and Financial Performance Linkage [in] Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Quarterly 29, 2000, pp. 164-182.
- Crittenden W.F, Crittenden V. L. - Relationships Between Organizational Characteristics and Strategic Planning Processes in Nonprofit Organizations [in] Journal of Managerial Issues 12 (2), 2000, pp. 150-169.
- Domański J. - Strategic Group Analysis of Poland's Non-Profit Organizations. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly doi:10.1177/0899764009338219, 2009.[Crossref]
- Drucker P. F. - Zarządzanie organizacją pozarządową - teoria i praktyka. Wyd. Fundusz Współpracy - Program PHARE, Dialog społeczny NGO's, Warszawa 1995.
- Fillis I. - Image, Reputation and Identity Issues in the Arts and Crafts Organization [in] Corporate Reputation Review 6 (3), 2003, pp. 239-251.
- Frumkin P., Casey A. E. - Creating New Schools: The Strategic Management of Charter Schools. Report. Annie E. Casey Foundation 2003.
- Golensky M., Mulder C. A. - Coping in a Constrained Economy: Survival Strategies of Nonprofit Human Service Organizations [in] Administration in Social Work 30 (3), 2006, pp. 5-24.[Crossref]
- Goold M. - Institutional advantage: A way into strategic management in not-for-profit organizations [in] Long Range Planning 30 (2), 1997, pp. 291-293.[Crossref]
- Griggs H. E. - Corporatisation of the Not-For-Profit Sector: strategic planning and organizational performance in disability-based organizations [in] International Journal of Disability, Development & Education 50 (2), 2003, pp. 197-220.
- Gunby Jr N. W. - Firm performance and complementary strategy development processes [in] Management Decision 47 (5), 2009, pp. 7-7.
- Hafsi T., Thomas H. - Strategic Management and Change in High Dependency Environments: The Case of a Philanthropic Organization [in] Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary & Nonprofit Organizations 16 (4), 2005, pp. 329-351.[Crossref]
- Hwang H, Powell W. W. - The Rationalization of Charity: The Influences of Professionalism in the Nonprofit Sector [in] Administrative Science Quarterly 54 (2), 2009, pp. 268-298.[Crossref]
- Inamdar S. N., Kaplan R. S., Jones M. L., Menitoff R. - The Balanced Scorecard: a strategic management system for multi-sector collaboration and strategy implementation [in] Quality management in health care 8 (4), 2000, pp. 21-39.[PubMed]
- Jarmon R. - Quality Levels of For-Profit and Non-profit Competitors: a Review of Studies in Health Care [at] Allied Academies International Conference: Proceedings of the Academy of Strategic Management (ASM) 7 (1), 2008, pp. 35-40.
- Johnson R., Lipp A. - Cognitive Mapping: A Process to Support Strategic Planning in an Academic Department [in] Group Decision & Negotiation 16 (1), 2007, pp. 43-60.
- Katsioloudes M. I., Tymon W. G. - Strategic Planning Practices: Are they what they should be? [in] Human Systems Management 22 (4), 2003, pp. 177-183.
- Kemp R.L, Kemp J. D. - A New Planning Model for the Public and Nonprofit Sector [in] Management Research News 15 (2), 1992, pp. 1-3.
- Kong E. - The strategic importance of intellectual capital in the non-profit sector [in] Journal of Intellectual Capital 8 (4), 2007, pp. 721-731.
- Lauer L. D. - Nonprofits Going Global Opportunities and Problems from a Communicator's Perspective [in] Nonprofit World 13 (6), 1995, pp. 45-48.
- LeRoux K., Goerdel H. T. - Political Advocacy by Nonprofit Organizations: A Strategic Management Explanation [in] Public Performance & Management Review 32 (4), 2009, pp. 514-536.
- Mara C. M. - A Strategic Planning Process for a Small Nonprofit Organization [in] Nonprofit Management & Leadership 11 (2), 2000, pp. 211-223.
- Mazzarol T. W., Soutar G. N. - Strategy matters: strategic positioning and performance in the education services sector [in] International Journal of Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Marketing 13 (2), 2008, pp. 141-151.
- Miller K. D. - Competitive Strategies of Religious Organizations [in] Strategic Management Journal 23 (5), 2002, pp. 435-456.[Crossref]
- Moore M. H. - Managing for Value: Organizational Strategy in for-Profit, Nonprofit, and Governmental Organizations [in] Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Quarterly 29, 2000, pp. 183-208.
- Mulhare E. M. - Mindful of the future: Strategic planning ideology and the culture of nonprofit management [in] Human organization 58 (3), 1999, pp. 323-331.
- Paarlberg L. E., Bielefeld W. - Complexity Science - An Alternative Framework for Understanding Strategic Management in Public Serving Organizations [in] International Public Management Journal 12 (2), 2009, pp. 236-260.[Crossref]
- Pavičić J., Renko N., Alfirević N. - The Role of Competitive Analysis and Marketing Orientation in Improving Competitiveness of the Non-profit Sector - Theoretical Background and Empirical Evidence [at] Conference Proceedings: 2001 International Conference Enterprise in Transition, 2001, pp. 422-437.
- Pieter J. - Ogólna metodologia pracy naukowej. Ossolineum, Wrocław 1967.
- Pijl Kvd, Sminia H. - Strategic Management of Public Interest Organizations [in] Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary & Nonprofit Organizations 15 (2), 2004, pp. 137-155.[Crossref]
- Pike S., Roos G., Marr B. - Strategic management of intangible assets and value drivers in R&D organizations [in] R&D Management 35 (2), 2005, pp. 111-124.
- Reeves T. C., Ford E. W. - Strategic management and performance differences: nonprofit versus forprofit health organizations [in] Health care management review 29 (4), 2004, pp. 298-308.[Crossref]
- Renshaw S., Krishnaswamy G. - Critiquing the Knowledge Management Strategies of Non-profit Organizations in Australia [in] Proceedings of World Academy of Science: Engineering & Technology 37, 2009, pp. 456-464.
- Reussner E. M. - Strategic management for visitor-oriented museums [in] International Journal of Cultural Policy 9 (1), 2003, pp. 95-108.
- Rhodes M.L, Keogan J. F. Strategic Choice in the Non-Profit Sector: Modelling the Dimensions of Strategy [in] Irish Journal of Management 26 (1), 2005, pp. 122-135.
- Ridder H., McCandless A. - Influences on the Architecture of Human Resource Management in Nonprofit Organizations: An Analytical Framework. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly doi: 10.1177/0899764008328182, 2008.[Crossref]
- Salamon L. M., Anheier R. K. - The Emerging Non-profit Sector: An Overview. University Press, Manchester 1996.
- Salamon L. M., Anheier H. Ka.A. - The Emerging Sector Revisited [in] A Summary Revised Estimates, CNP The Johns Hopkins Comparative Non-profit Sector Project, Phase II, 1999, pp. 1-32.
- Sargeant A. - Marketing w organizacjach non profit. Oficyna Ekonomiczna, Kraków 2004.
- Schalm C. - Implementing a balanced scorecard as a strategic management tool in a long-term care organization [in] Journal of health services research & policy 13 (1), 2008, pp. 8-14.
- Slyke van D. M., Brooks A. C. - Why do People Give? New Evidence and Strategies for Nonprofit Managers [in] American Review of Public Administration 35 (3), 2005, pp. 199-222.[Crossref]
- Speckbacher G. - Nonprofit versus corporate governance: An economic approach [in] Nonprofit Management & Leadership 18 (3), 2008, pp. 295-320.
- Speckbacher G. - The Economics of Performance Management in Nonprofit Organizations [in] Nonprofit Management & Leadership 13 (3), 2003, pp. 267-282.
- Starnes B. J. - Achieving Competitive Advantage Through the Application of Open Systems Theory and the Development of Strategic Alliances: A Guide for Managers of Nonprofit Organizations [in] Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing 8 (2), 2000, pp. 15-28.
- Stone M. M., Bigelow B., Crittenden W. - Research on Strategic Management in Nonprofit Organizations [in] Administration & Society 31 (3), 1999, pp. 378-423.[Crossref]
- Taylor T., McGraw P. - Exploring Human Resource Management Practices in Nonprofit Sport Organizations [in] Sport Management Review 9 (3), 2006, pp. 229-251.[Crossref]
- Vandijck D., Desmidt S., Buelens M. - Relevance of mission statements in Flemish not-for-profit healthcare organizations [in] Journal of nursing management 15 (2), 2007, pp. 131-141.
Publication order reference