THE SHIA ARMED GROUPS AND THE FUTURE OF IRAQ
Languages of publication
In this article, we try to identify the impact of the Shia militias in Iraq on the future of this country. We maintain that these armed groups will be a destabilising factor for Iraq and its neighbours, and they will worsen and deepen the sectarian division in the Middle East. We assess these different groups from different perspectives, for example, using the Weberian theory that the state is the only entity that has a monopoly of violence, Ariel Ahram’s model of state-sponsored and government-sponsored militias, and finally the devolution of violence to these armed groups.
- Aziz, J., 2016. What are Iraq’s Popular Mobilization Units doing in Beirut? Lebanon pulse. Th e Almonitor, 18 August, [online]. Available from: http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/ originals/2016/08/lebanon-host-secret-meeting-iraq-pmus-western-diplomats.html.
- Balcells, L., 2012. Book review of proxy warriors: Th e rise and fall of state-sponsored militias - By Ariel Ahram. Democracy and Security, 8, 406-414.
- Carey, S.C., Mitchell, N.J., & Lowe, W., 2013. States, the security sector, and the monopoly of violence. Journal of Peace Research, 50, 249–258.
- Brancati, D., 2004. Can Federalism Stabilize Iraq? Th e Washington Quarterly, 27, 7-21.
- Cockburn, P., 2005. Cricket but no chess in Sistani’s vision for democratic Iraq. Th e Independent News of the World, 9 February, [online]. Available from: http://www. independent.co.uk/news/world/cricket-but-no-chess-in-sistanis-vision-fordemocratic- iraq-1529714.html.
- Cole, J., 2014. Top 10 mistakes of former Iraq PM Nouri al-Maliki (that ruined his country). Juan Cole’s Blog, 15 August, [online]. Available from: http://www.juancole. com/2014/08/mistakes-Maliki-country.html.
- Lutterbeck, D., 2004. Between Police and Military: Th e New Security Agenda and the Rise of Gendarmeries. Cooperation and Confl ict, 39, 46-47
- Ekman, J., 2009. Political participation and regime stability: A framework for analyzing hybrid regimes. International Political Science Review, 30, 7-31.
- Massoud, A., 2015. About hybrid countries in the Arab world. Th e Arab Weekly Newspaper. [online]. Available from: http://www.alarab.co.uk/article/Opinion/53177/ %D8%B9%D9%86-
- Evans, G., 2003. Only self-rule will bring stability to Iraq. Th e Crisis Group. Op-ed, Middle East & North Africa, 26 August. [online]. Available from: https://www.crisisgroup. org/middle-east-north-africa/gulf-and-arabian-peninsula/iraq/only-self-rule-willbring- stability-iraq
- Golkar, S., 2015. Captive Society: Th e Basij militia and social control in Iran. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
- Gordon, M., & Schmitt, E., 2014. Saudi Arabia will grant U.S. request for anti-ISIS training program. Th e New York Times, 10 September, [online]. Available from: https://www. nytimes.com/2014/09/11/world/middleeast/saudi-arabia-isis.html?_r=1
- Hague, R., & Harrop, M., 2010. Comparative Government and Politics. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK.
- Hamilton, S., 2011. Outsourcing U.S. defense: National security implications - UPDATED: Industry insights. Th e National Defense, [online]. Available from: http://www.nationaldefensemagazine.org/archive/2011/January/Pages/Outsourcing USDefenseNationalSecurityImplications.aspx.
- Hawn, J., 2013. Intro to global security: Defi ning mercenaries and militias. [online]. Available from: http://introglobalsecurity.blogspot.com/2013/02/defi ning-mercenaries-andmilitias. html.
- Khedery, A., 2014. Why we stuck with Maliki -- and lost Iraq. Th e Washington Post. Opinions, 3 July, [online]. Available from: https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/ why-we-stuck-with-maliki--and-lost-iraq/2014/07/03/0dd6a8a4-f7ec-11e3-a606- 946fd632f9f1_story.html?utm_term=.c59a1a63d94f.
- Middle East Eye Staff ., 2015. Militias ‘greater threat’ to Iraq’s unity than Islamic State: Petraeus. News, Th e Middle East Eye, 21 June, [online]. Available from: http://www. middleeasteye.net/news/militias-greater-threat-iraqs-unity-islamic-state-petraeus- 1595509838.
- Rawabet Research and Strategic Studies Center. 2016. Popular crowd forces in Iraq (Al-Hashd al-shaabi) origin and future – survey. Releases, Th e Rawabet. [online]. Available from: http://rawabetcenter.com/en/?cat=3.
- Tran, M., & Roberts, D., 2014. Obama to lay out plan to ‘destroy’ Isis threat as Kerry arrives in Baghdad. Th e Guardian, [online]. Available from: https://www.theguardian. com/world/2014/sep/10/john-kerry-baghdad-obama-isis-strategy.
- Tures, J., 2014. How we enabled ISIS by disarming Iraqi militias. Huffi ngton Post, Th e Blog, 7 October, [online]. Available from: http://www.huffi ngtonpost.com/john-atures/ how-we-enabled-isis-by-di_b_5947796.html.
Publication order reference