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2007 | 52 | 2 | 155-177

Article title

Limnological investigations of lakes in the Tatra Mountains in the years 1804-1918

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The first limnological investigation of lakes in the Polish Tatra Mountains began in the 19th century, with the pioneering work of Stanislaw Staszic. Staszic made measurements of the lakes and addressed the question of their origin, arriving at partly correct observations concerning the shape and the depth of the lakes, and fully correct conclusions on the differences in the water levels in the lakes; he also devoted some attention to the fish fauna of the lakes. L. Zejszner investigated the lakes in the years 1838-1839, comparing them with regard to their situation and elevation above see level, and making measurements of the depth of the 'Morskie Oko' lake, as well as supplying information on fish fauna. L. Bierkowski made a short study of the lakes, devoting most attention to the hydrographic network of the streams and other watercourses linking the 'Piec Stawów' group of lakes, and flowing out of them. He also made interesting sketches of the lakes and of the location of the lakes. E. Dziewulski was the author of precise studies in the limnology of the Tatra Mountains, presenting the plans of the shores of the lakes, a very accurately calculated barometric elevation and measurements of the temperature in the lakes, as well as describing the configuration of the bottom and backshore. L. Birkenmajer was interested in the temperature of the waters on the surface and in the depth of the lakes, and he also investigated the freezing and thawing of the lakes, being the first to describe the thickness of ice layers, measuring the precipitation and carrying out many measurements of the altitude. However, in spite of the high standards of the research, most of the data concerned only the 'Morskie Oko' lake, with information on the remaining lakes being incomplete and inadequate as a basis for making generalizations concerning the remaining lakes. L. Sawicki was concerned with bathymetry, as well as with measurements of the temperature of the Tatran lakes. A. Litynski conducted hydrobiological research of the lakes and took an interest in the thermal conditions in the lakes, which allowed him to point out a number of factors influencing the long duration of the ice cover on the lakes. In his research on the thermal conditions of the lakes, Litynski conducted comparative studies of a number of the lakes, measuring their maximum, average and minimum temperatures. All of this pioneering research provided a foundation for the broad scope of research carried in the interwar period (1918-1939).









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  • J. M. Slusarczyk, Gorskie Towarzystwo Naukowe, Bielsko-Biala, Poland


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