The article presents the development of Polish medical press in the years 1945-1949. The departure point - year 1945 - signifies not only the end of World War II and the beginning of new era of history, but it is also a moment of establishing new scientific institutions in Poland, among others the 'Scientific and Publishing Department at Ministry of Health', which was to protect the remaining scientific output and develop it. The year 1949, on the other hand, is not only a period of slow elimination of relative democratic privileges, but also the time of decline in publishing activity of several medical periodicals that were independent of the Health Department. Finally, it is marked by the first issue of 'Sluzba Zdrowia' ['Health Service'] - a popular medical weekly magazine, a subsidiary of ZZPSZ, a journal completely subordinated to dictatorship of the political system. The paper includes an analysis of 9 titles of popular medical periodicals that were issued in the above-mentioned period. Thanks to the selection of popular magazines the Author could find the answers for the following questions - to what extent in the columns of medical journals one could observe the freedom of authors' opinions and what views concerned the freedom, what one can say about the development of scientific section and the subject matter of discussed issues, how the problems were presented and what was being said about contacts and cooperation of Polish doctors with foreign nationals. Therefore the article discusses the first projects and publishing programs prepared by Scientific and Publishing Department. It also presents chronologically the origin, development and - quite often - the decline of succeeding popular medical periodicals. A special attention was paid to the social issues of medical circles which can turn out to be extremely interesting for the present-day reader and to the scientific section, in which one could find a review of medical bibliography that in those days made it possible to publish the summaries of Western scientific bibliography.