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2010 | 3 | 111-135

Article title

GENDER ASPECT OF THE SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT (Gendernyi aspekt rozvytku maloho pidpryiemnytstva)

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The article is devoted to the gender aspect of development of small business in Ukraine. Although, historically, sex did not have deciding influence on success in business (the capital amount had a greater weight), however the level of women participation in business, in its management, and also among its proprietors was always lower as compared to men. And now there is a gender disbalance in this sphere of employment. Well-educated businesswomen are not engaged enough in this type of activity that is the inefficient strategy of economic development. An analysis of situation in small business from the viewpoint of the level of women representation, efficiency and terms of their labor, as well as the presence/lack of the facts of gender discrimination is the purpose of the article. Research of gender aspect of small business was carried out on the basis of data analysis of statistics, secondary analysis of the data of economic and sociological researches, and also on the basis of information of own research by the method of focus-groups. The gender analysis of the sphere of small business resulted in the following conclusions: the horizontal gender segregation takes place, when women are mainly concentrated in less profitable types of employment (trade, sphere of services, farming). Transport, communication and building are trends of activity of businessmen. The labor conditions in such industries as the market and agriculture trade are extremely hard and unhealthy. Immediate measures should be taken to improve labor conditions of women making a majority at the market. Gender discrimination is seen in the phenomenon which was marked by all polled women: bribes are more frequently and more insolently extorted from business women, than from business men. As evaluated by business women the efficiency of their labor from the viewpoint of incomes does not differ in any way from the labor of men working next to them. A great problem for women working in small business is the receipt of social help after the child delivery. If an expectant mother wants to receive money from the state, she has to close her enterprise. For the hired workers (both men and women) engaged in the field of business the proper registration of labor relations is also a problem. Very often they work without registration of labor agreements and record in a service-record (so-called shadow labor-market). The basic gender problem, that was revealed in a talk with women: they, practically, have no reflections in respect of the gender problems of the society. Thus, in the field of gender relations of the Ukrainian society a conflict between the notions of Ukrainians as to normative gender roles which are mainly understood as traditional, and real types of gender relations in a family and at work, among with prevailing egalitarian gender relations.


  • Nataliia Lavrinenko, Institute of Sociology, NAS of Ukraine, vul. Shovkovychna, 12, Kyiv, 01004, Ukraine


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