MODAL EXPRESSIONS IN THE LANGUAGE OF PHYSICAL SCIENCE
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Modal concepts - among them the concepts of logical, physical (nomic) and metaphysical necessity - used to be quite important for philosophy of science during centuries. However, in the 20th c. most philosophers aimed to avoid using those concepts in science, especially the concept of physical necessity. It may be noticed, modal concepts have begun to arouse interest recently, but still it is not easy to analyze them. Some patterns from history of physics are presented, showing the concept of physical necessity to play an important part in the scientific research of nature. And the nature of physically necessary statements is different from both logically necessary and accidental ones.Three aims to explain the nature of physical necessity are discussed. (1) Physical necessities are just relative necessities, logical consequences of physical laws. (2) Logical and physical necessity are of the same nature, although logically necessary statements are analytical as well, while those physically necessary are synthetic. Some serious difficulties arising in both theories are shown. Finally a third explanation is outlined. (3) The two kinds of necessary statements differ in their reference: they describe different kinds of real relationships (connection).
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