Stupňovací spojovací prostředky v barokní češtině
INTENSIFYING / GRADATIONAL CONJUCTIONS IN THE CZECH LANGUAGE OF THE BAROQUE PERIOD
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Having analysed selected Baroque texts (mostly fiction), grammar books and dictionaries, the author found that in the Baroque Czech there are the following expressions usually called intensifying / gradational by traditional Czech syntactic theories. I) Conjunctions: 1. Simple (i.e. consisting of only one part; 'jednodilné') 'ano', 'ba'; 'anobrz', 'nýbrz' (rarely having the intensifying meaning, mostly adversative); 2. Partioned (i.e. a pair of conjunctions which work together to coordinate two items; 'ruznovetné'): 'netoliko' / 'nejen(om)' / 'nercili' / 'nerkuli(c)' - 'ale' / 'nýbrz' / 'anobrz' / 'alebrz' / 'nez' / 'ano' / 'ani' (like the Latin pattern 'non solum' / 'non tantum' / 'non modo' - 'sed etiam' / 'verum etiam', the Czech structure is lexically variable). II) Modifiers (usually following the conjunctions): 1. Adverbial expressions 'nad to' / 'nadto', 'k tomu'; 2. Expressions containing the feature of quantity / intensity:'vice' / 'viceji', 'spise', 'mnohém'; 3. Emphasizing particles: 'i', 'ani', 'také', 'jeste'. In the Baroque Czech the conjunction 'natoz' and the modifier 'navic' are not used at all. The expression 'dokonce' keeps its original quantitative / totalising meaning in most cases. The analysis of Baroque Czech conjunctions shows that with regard to their meaning these intensifying expressions do not share any intensifying features, i.e. they do not form a homogeneous group in this respect. In my analysis I have also found that in the Medieval period the influence of German syntax on Czech syntax increased: 1) The German affirmative 'ja' that changed into an intensifying conjunction also influenced the Czech affirmative 'ano', 'ba', which became an intensifying conjunction as well. 2) Similarly, the German 'nicht allein' - 'sondern' inspired the expansion of the Czech conjunction 'nýbrz' into'netoliko' /'nejen(om)' - 'nýbrz'.
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