STUDENTS, BUSINESSMEN, COMMERCIAL TRAVELLERS AND CRAFTSMEN UNDER THE SCRUTINY OF HABSBURG PASSPORT POLICY IN THE 1815-1848 (Slovak title below)
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(Slovak title: Studenti, obchodnici, obchodni cestujuci a remeselnicki tovarisi pod drobnohladom habsburskej pasovej politiky v rokoch 1815 - 1848). This study is concerned with analysis and interpretation of Habsburg policy on passports and foreign visitors in relation to four specific groups. It enables us to penetrate into the 'everyday' struggle of the Austrian police to preserve the status quo in the Habsburg Monarchy in the period of formation of the ideologies of liberalism, nationalism and communism. Thorough verification of people entering the territory of the Austrian Empire, careful investigation of all possible 'harmful' influences from which it was necessary to protect the population, 'hermetic' closure of frontiers on one side, and the economic pressures of international co-operation, development of intellectual culture, national movements, bureaucratization with typical 'holes in the laws' and expressions of official sloppiness on the other, represent the main limits within which Austrian passport policy moved in the first half of the 19th century.
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