Vícedílný dvůr na Balkáně – specifický fenomén mediteránní tradice v Evropě
MULTIPART HOUSE IN THE BALKANS - SPECIFIC PHENOMENON OF MEDITERRANEAN TRADITION IN EUROPE
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Balkan multipart house yard is unknown in Europe and not appreciated duly within the frame of the ethnology of the Balkans. The yard is being divided territorially and functionally to living, working and cultivated spaces, with graduated requirements for each zone and an elaborated system of communication. The parts of the yard function almost independently. In the majority of the cases, the yard is being divided into two parts, living and working one. During the long summer period, the residence is being transferred from the inner, closed part of the house to the living part of the yard and the adjacent, roofed terrace opened to the yard. The clean residential part of the yard is the norm and it resembles a living garden - in rural as well as contemporary urban millieu. The division of the yard and the marginalization of its economic functions depend on the type of cultivation. The authoress analyses the causes, contexts and manifestations of functional differentiation and complicated systems of cultivation of the Balkan yard. Its formal unity can be perceived as a proof of its developmental stability and long, unrestrained development. The concept of residential family intimity of the closed yard is being followed to the Ancient roots, the atrial and peristyl house, as well as to the tradition of two thousand years of multipart houses of privileged and unprivileged millieu. This tradition is being interpreted as the carrying over of the value of Mediterranean, originally urban cultivated yard and the adaptation of the principle of division of the house - social, historical, ethnical and religious, of great potential for invention and renovation. It represents the Balkan unity in diversity.
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