The paper focuses on gender equality policy in education. It aims to rectify the fact that theoretical concepts of gender equality receive little attention in the Czech Republic, both within academic discussion and in practical political discourse. In general, gender equality can be defined in three different ways: equality in approach, equality in opportunities, or equality in results. Furthermore, we can distinguish between gender sensitivity and gender neutrality. All alternatives have their weak and strong sides which are discussed in the paper. An effective school policy cannot make do without a deep understanding of these issues, which helps explain why the Czech version of gender equality policy is so inefficient in spite of some positive changes in the past few years. Gender equality is incorporated in school policies mostly in a formal manner that shows little concern or/and no understanding of the latent aspects of gender equality.