Odbiorca sztuki czy agent pola artystycznego. Elementy socjologii sztuki Pierre’a Bourdieu
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This article presents a few theoretical terms of the famous French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu concerning sociology of art. Some of them describe an individual - agent (fr. agent), habitus (fr. habitus), and others his social status - capital (fr. capital) and field (fr. champ). Habitus - An interior principle generating practices, it is „to have” transformed into „to be”. Habitus is linked with the process o f socialisation permitting to distinguish a primary habitus and the secondary one, as well as identifying educational, professional and social class, old and new habitus. They correlate with class structure, social mobility and trajectory. They also dictate preferences, tastes and styles of life. Capital is an economic term meaning possession of special kinds of goods, both material and symbolic, so, an economical, social, cultural and symbolic capital can be identified. All social classes and groups possess more or less of the specific types of capital distinguishing their different positions and behaviours in political and artistic fields. Nevertheless, a conversion of different capitals is possible. Field or rather fields are social areas possessing specific structure, agents and stakes; they have a dynamic character. Specific forms of capital are linked to different fields; for example economic capital is very important in political field, but cultural in artistic and scientific ones. Spectators’ attitudes and behaviors depend on their social status and not only on their cultural competences. Constructing typology of spectators, on one hand, Pierre Bourdieu distinguished non educated receivers, educated, and highly educated ones, on the other hand- devotees and prophets as well as mass and elitist public. Sociological characteristics of spectators performed by Pierre Bourdieu were different to descriptions of aesthetics discourse.
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