Teorie sukcesji państw w stosunku do traktatów a koncepcja sukcesji w konwencji wiedeńskiej z 23 sierpnia 1978 r.
Theories of State Succession in Respect of Treaties and the Conception of Succession of States to Treaties in The Vienna Convention Signed in August 23, 1978
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The problem of state succession to treaties was the subject of several years studies of the International Law Commission, the result of which is the Vienna Convention signed on th e 23 of August 1978. The scheme for the succession of states taken by the Commission is partly due to the doctrine of states succession, the task of this article is to show this connection. The article is divided into three parts, the first one concerns the definition of state succession and the essence of this phenomenon, presents different views in respect to this problem , deals rather with succession in fact. The second part shows legal theories on succession in law , starting form universal theory and going on to the modern views. The doctrine of International Law is not unanimous as to the duty of the successor state to overtake the rights and the obligations of the predecessor state. Classical theories are inflexible, proving the existence of this duty or denying it. Modern opinions are more realistic, they neutralize these two tendencies. These authors are closer to the „truth" who say, that the succession of states to treaties has rather mixed bind the successor because of its will and some, according to the rules of international law. There is a great unanimity in theory that the treaties creating teritorial regimes (differently called localized treaties, dispositive treaties, treaties creating state servitudes) form this special category of treaties binding the successor state automatically. The Vienna Convention (to which the third part of the article is devoted) seem s to take the same assumption, the rule of continuity of territorial and frontier régimes is in the Convention the strongest accent of permanency of the predecessor's obligations. The solution of the problem of state succession taken by the Convention is based on the woluntary theory of succession of states with a lot of exceptions for the benefit of the theory of automatic succession and functional succession. It is very difficult to state today if the modern shape of state accession as a woluntary one is the consequence of logic, legal reasoning, what was in reality the role of the theory of International Law or practice of states it is difficult to establish, but we can not underestim ate the influence of the doctrine of International Law on the process of creating of its norms or the practice of its subjects. The Vienna Convention is the first trial of systematic approach to the problems of state succession. We do not know how it will be applied in the future, for today it is a solution the states present at the Vienna Conference in 1977 and 1978 could accept. The Convention is not strictly dogmatic, it let us have a hope that it will be a real solution, in some cases giving the successor great freedom injothers limiting it considerably.
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