Decentralizacja a integracja i globalizacja
Decentralisation, Integration and Globalisation
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It is commonly recognised today that such phenomena as integration and globalisation appeared in the world economy in the second half of the 20th century and they are a result of liberalisation of the economic policy adopted by particular countries and, thus, decentralisation of their economic systems. Meanwhile, it should be admitted from the historical point of view that they were already present at the time when strictly centralised economic systems dominated in these countries. Both in the countries of slave type and in feudal countries integration phenomena assumed two dimensions. The first of them was such that economically strong countries displayed aspiration to subordinate other countries to themselves. The other dimension of integration in slave and feudal countries took the form of a desire to preserve a country’s territorial unity. For such system to be able to operate effectively it was necessary to ensure an effective way of a country’s integration. An example of such unusually effective integration of a feudal country is Japan’s economy in the Tungava’s period. Moreover, deliberations presented in the article indicate that there exist close relationships between such phenomena as centralisation, integration and globalisation. First of all, although integration phenomena can be found in countries with centralised systems these phenomena are of a forced out type. Main benefits from integration are derived in such case by a hegemonic entity. Secondly, contrary to appearances a high centralisation degree of economic systems in particular countries does not promote natural integration processes. Such processes find the most favourable conditions in countries characterised by economic systems with limited decentralisation resulting from legal regulations followed in them, which civilise the market system. Integration phenomena in such case consist in aspirations to standardise these regulations in associating countries. Hence, the speed with which these aspirations are fulfilled and their scale determine the scale of integration of the world economy and, consequently, the scale of its globalisation.
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