Optimality Theoretic Analysis of Non-Rhoticity in English
Languages of publication
The paper intends to describe various rhotic phenomena within a unified phonological framework of Optimality Theory. This description encompasses "standard" rhotic phenomena, such as linking and intrusive r. Additionally both hyper- and hypo-rhoticity are discussed. The paper serves primarily two points. First, it proves practical workability of constraint mechanism, as proposed by Optimality Theory. Second, it presents an integrated account of seemingly unrelated phonological facts observed in various accents of English.The paper discusses also previous accounts of rhoticity in English in connection with an attempt of presenting solid evidence for the choice of underlying forms. Furthermore two competing theoretical descriptions of rhotic insertions (epenthesis vs. gliding/spreading) are compared and evaluated. Finally, the spreading account is shown to be formally superior to the anti-hiatus approach.Moreover, the paper demonstrates a way in which r-liaison might be incorporated in the synchronic grammar of non-rhotic accents. Simply put, r-liaison could be perceived as another instantiation of VSpread conspiracy, where vowels tend to spread their melodic content onto the following segments. The OT machinery was also employed to account for the differences between various subtypes of non-rhotic accents, in terms of re-ranking of several constraints. The peculiar phenomena of hyper-rhoticity have, too, been demonstrated to fit the proposal.
- Bakovi, E. 1999. Deletion, insertion and symmetrical identity. ROA-300.
- Broadbent, J. 1991. "Linking and intrusive r in English". University College London Working Papers in Linguistics 3: 281-302.
- Catfored, J. C. 1988. A practical introduction to phonetics. Oxford: Oxford UP.
- Cruttenden, A. 1994. Gimson's pronunciation of English. London: Edward Arnold.
- Gick, B. 1999. "A gesture-based account of intrusive consonants in English". Phonology 16.1: 29-54.[Crossref]
- Gick, B. 2002. "American intrusive L." American Speech 77.2: 167-183.
- Gimson, A. C. 1980. An introduction to the pronunciation of English. third edn. London: Edward Arnold.
- Halle, M. and Idsardi, W. J. 1997. "r, hypercorrection and the elsewhere condition". In: Roca I. M. (ed.). Derivations and constraints in phonology Oxford: Clarendon, 331-48.
- Harris, J. 1994. English sound structure. Oxford: Blackwell.
- Hughes, A. and Trudgill, P. 1996. English accents and dialects. London: Edward Arnold.
- Jespersen, O. 1904. Lehrbuch der Phonetik. Leipzig, Berlin: Teubner.
- Kager, R. 1999. Optimality Theory: a textbook. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.
- Kenyon, J. S. 1958. American pronunciation. Ann Arbor, Mich.: George Wahr.
- Labov, W. 1992. Principles of linguistic change. Washington, DC: Center for Applied linguistics.
- Laver, J. 1994. Principles of phonetics. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.
- McCarthy, J. J. 1991. "Synchronic rule inversion". In: Sutton, L. A., Johnson, C. and Shields, R. (eds.), Proceedings of the 17th Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Society, 192-207.
- McCarthy, J. J. 1993. "A case of surface constraint violation". Canadian Journal of Linguistics 38: 169-95.
- McCarthy, J. and Prince, A. [S.] 1995. Faithfulness and reduplicative identity. In: Jill Beckam, Laura Walsh Dickey, & Susan Urbaczyk (eds). Papers in Optimality Theory University of Massachusetts Occasional Papers 18; Amherst, Mass.: Graduate Linguistic Student Association, University of Massachusetts, 249-384. ROA-60-0000.
- McMahon, April 1996. "On the use of the past to explain the present: the history of /r/ in English and Scots". In: Britton D. (ed.), English Historical Linguistics 1994 Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 73-89.
- Ostalski, P. 2004. Constraints in Optimality Theory. A case study of rhoticity phenomena in English, unpublished Ph.D. thesis. University of Łód.
- Prince, A. [S.] and Smolensky, P. 1993. "Optimality Theory Rutgers University". Technical report RuCCS TR-2.
- Pullum, G. 1976. "The Duke of York gambit". Journal of Linguistics 12: 83-102.[Crossref]
- Rubach, J. 2000. "Glide and glottal stop insertion in Slavic languages: A DOT analysis". Linguistic Inquiry 31: 271-317.
- Sanders, N. 2002. Preserving synchronic parallelism: Diachrony and opacity in Polish. In" Andronis, M., Ball, C., Elston, H. and Neuvel, S. (eds), CLS: The Main Session. Papers from the 37th meeting of the Chicago Linguistics Society, vol. 1. Chicago Linguistics Society, 501-516.
- Trudgill, P. and Hannah, J. 1994. International English. London: Edward Arnold.
- Uffmann, C. 2002. R-intrusion as a natural process. Ms. Universität Marburg.
- Urbaczyk, S. 1984. Zarys dialektologii polskiej. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
- Wells, J. C. 1982. Accents of English. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.[WoS]
- Wells, J. C. 1991. Longman pronunciation dictionary. Burnt Mill, Harlow, Essex: Longman House.[WoS]
- Wierzchowska, B. 1980. Fonetyka i fonologia jzyka polskiego. Wrocław: Zakład Narodowy imienia Ossoliskich.
Publication order reference