Full-text resources of CEJSH and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


2017 | 29/1 |

Article title

On the difficult art of human condition. Hermeneutics of non-knowledge

Title variants

Languages of publication


The paper is an attempt to show the specificity of human knowledge and also its insufficiency when contrasted with the feeling that we still know very little or almost nothing. The presented problem is discussed from the perspective of hermeneutics. According to the view of Socrates, only by being true to themselves can humans know their nature and actually their insignificance to the universe. Theologians explain, though, that the human condition, although very poor as such – according to the will of God – can be filled with grace. Our faith is largely founded on non-knowledge. We still face our own ignorance and the confrontation with non-knowledge becomes the cause of constantly asking new questions and of human development in general.




Physical description





  • Arendt H., Thinking Against Evil [in:] H. Arendt (posthumous book), McCarthy M. (eds.), The Life of the Mind, vol. I, New York 1978.
  • Arystoteles, Kategorie i Hermeneutyka, tłum. K. Leśniak, Warszawa 1975.
  • Aristotle, Metaphysics, trans. W. D. Ross, http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/metaphysics.html, [in] The Internet Classic Archive, since 1994.
  • Asnyk A., http://www.cytaty.info/cytat/miloscjestjakcien.htm.
  • Cassirer E., An Essay on Man: an introduction to a philosophy of human culture, London 1944.
  • Dąbrowski K., Elementy filozofii rozwoju (Elements of the development philosophy), Warszawa 1989.
  • Descartes R., Discourse on the Method, The Radical Academy 2006, http;//www.earlymoderntexts.com/pdf/desdisc.pdf.
  • Frege G., Sense and Reference, [in:] The Philosophical Review, vol. 57, issue 3, Cornell 1948, pp. 209-230.
  • Gadamer H.-G., Prawda i metoda (Wahrheit und Methode – Truth and Method), tłum. B. Baran, Warszawa 2004.
  • Heidegger M., Bycie i czas (Sein und Zeit – Being and Time), przeł. B. Baran, Warszawa 2004.
  • Heschel A. J., Who is Man, Stanford 1965.
  • Jaspers K., Człowiek, tłum. D. Lachowska, [in.] Filozofia egzystencji, Warszawa 1990. Original version: Der Mensch, [in:] Der philosophische Glaube, München 1948.
  • Jaspers K., Way to Wisdom. An Introduction to Philosophy, trans. R. Manheim, Yale 1951.
  • John Paul II, Fides et Ratio. On the Relationship Between Faith and Reason (Encyclical Letter), Vatican 1998.
  • Kaczmarek J., Ontologiczne podstawy struktury aktów woli (Ontological Basis for the Structure of Acts of Will), “Zeszyty Naukowe WSHE”, No. 6: Filozofia woli (Philosophy of Will), Łódź 2002, pp. 29-43.
  • Khun Th. S., The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, [in] International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, vol. II, No. 2, United States of America 1970.
  • Kripke S., Identity and Necessity, [in:] eds. M. K. Munitz, Identity and Individuation, New York 1971, pp. 135- 164.
  • McGinn C., Can We Solve the Mind-Body Problem?, “Mind, New Series”, 1989, 98(391), pp. 349–366.
  • Plato, Defence of Socrates, Euthyphro and Crito, trans. D. Gallop, Oxford 1997.
  • Popek K., Uwikłanie bohatera w mit – drogi duchowego wyzwolenia (The entanglement of the hero into myth – ways of spiritual liberation), “Idea. Studia nad Strukturą i Rozwojem Pojęć Filozoficznych”, No. XXVIII/1, Białystok 2016, pp. 191-216.
  • Popek K., Wymiary błądzenia kulturowego w kontekście nieustannego poszukiwania własnej drogi życiowej. Inspiracje postawą Don Kichota wśród młodzieży (Dimensions of Cultural Wandering in the Context of the Constant Search for Once’s Way of Identity. Don Quixote’s Attitudes as an Inspiration among Youth), „Youth Policy: Problems and Prospects”, No. 5, Drohobycz – Przemyśl 2014, pp. 242-247.
  • Popper K. R., Conjectures and Refutations. The Growth of Scientific Knowledge, London – New York 1962.
  • Powszechna Encyklopedia Filozofii (Lublin Universal Encyclopedia of Philosophy), t. 4, Lublin 2003 [hasło: hermeneutyka (password: hermeneutics)].
  • Powszechna Encyklopedia Filozofii (Lublin Universal Encyclopedia of Philosophy), t. 8, Lublin 2007 [hasło: paradygmat (password: paradigm)].
  • Reale G., Przekaz filozoficzny za pośrednictwem mitu i koncepcja wolności u Platona (Philosophical message through myth and the concept of freedom in Plato, “Człowiek w Kulturze” No. 9: Wolność we współczesnej kulturze (Freedom in contemporary culture), Lublin 1997, pp. 41-50.
  • Scheler M., The Idea of Man, trans. C. Nabe, “Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology” No. 9, Oct 1978, pp. 184–198.
  • Sikora K., Mitologiczne metafory rozwoju, [in:] Hermeneutyka a psychologia, eds. A. Gałdowa, Kraków 1997.
  • Tarnopolski A., Człowiek wobec niewiedzy (Human in the Face of Non-Knowledge), Częstochowa 2010.
  • Tarnopolski A., Niewiedza i jej rola w świecie późnej nowoczesności (Non-Knowledge and Its Role in the World of Late Modernity), Częstochowa 2011.
  • The Holy Bible, https://www.lds.org/scriptures/bible?lang=eng.
  • Thomas Aquinas, Quaestiones disputatae de veritate (qu. XI – De Magistro), [in:] Sancti Thomae de Aquino Opera omnia iussu Leonis XIII P. M. edita, vol. 22 (part 1-3), Roma 1970-1976 (and: http://dhspriory.org/thomas/QDdeVer.htm).

Document Type

Publication order reference



YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.