Full-text resources of CEJSH and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


2017 | Volume 13 | Issue 2 | 169-181

Article title

Faculty’s turnover in private higher learning institutions: A phenomenal inquiry


Title variants

Languages of publication



The quality of the faculty is one of the most important components of higher education’s quality assurance. Turnover among faculty, however, could undermine the efficiency, productivity and in some occasions, threats the institution’s long-term survival. Preliminary interviews with human resource personnel of selected private higher institutions revealed a high turnover rate of 18%. This qualitative phenomenological study explored the reason on why faculty resigns their job. In-depth interviews were conducted with faculty members from 5 private universities in Malaysia, using purposive sampling. The NVivo 8 software was used to analyze the data thematically. Seven major themes emerged from the analysis including; employer image, availability of external job opportunities, social media bullying, unfair performance measurement, unfair compensation, work overload and job Insecurity. Although some emerging themes could be traced to previous literatures, an emerging theme of social media bullying warrants further scrutiny. The research results could help private universities to strategize how to minimize the high turnover rates while optimizing the levels of faculty retention. Furthermore, this research provides some initial insight on the role of social media bullying in turnover literature.






Physical description




  • Faculty of Technology Management and Business, University Tun Hussien Onn, Malaysia
  • Faculty of Technology Management and Business, University Tun Hussien Onn, Malaysia


  • Abbasi, S. &Hollman, K. (2000).Turnover: the real bottomline. Public Personnel Management, 29(3), 333-342. https://doi.org/10.1177/009102600002900303
  • Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances inExperimental Social Psychology (pp. 267-299). New York, NY: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60108-2
  • Ahsan, N., Abdullah, Z. David, Y.G.F. & Alam, S.S. (2009). A Study of Job Stress on Job Satisfaction among University Staff in Malaysia: Empirical Study, European Journal of Social Sciences, 8(1), 121-131.
  • Berthon, P., Ewing, M.,& Hah, L.L. (2005). Captivating company: Dimensions of attractiveness in employer branding. International Journal of Advertising, 24(2), 151-172. https://doi.org/10.1080/02650487.2005.11072912
  • Bryant, M. &Buttigieg, D. (2009). Poor bullying prevention and employee health: Some implications, International Journal of Workplace, 2(1), 48-62. https://doi.org/10.1108/17538350910946009
  • Cheng, G. H. L., & Chan, D. K. S. (2008). Who suffers more from job insecurity? A meta-analytic review. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 57, 272-303. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2007.00312.x
  • Cohen-Charash, Y. and Spector, P.E. (2001), The role of justice in organizations: A meta analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Process, 86(2), 278-321. https://doi.org/10.1006/obhd.2001.2958
  • Colquitt, J.A., Conlon, D.E., Wesson, M.J., Porter, C.O.L.H. & Ng, K.Y. (2001). Justice at the millennium: a meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 425-445. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.3.425
  • Creswell, J. W. (2005). Educational research: Planning conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
  • Crews, T. B., Wilkinson, K., Hemby, K. V., McCannon, M., & Wiedmaier, C. (2008). Workload management strategies for online educators. The Journal of Research in Business Education, 50(3), 132.
  • Cropanzano, R., Prehar, C.A. & Chen, P.Y. (2002). Using social exchange theory to distinguish procedural from interactional justice. Group and Organizational Management, 27(3), 324-351. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601102027003002
  • DeCuir-Gunby, J.T. 2008, Mixed methods research in the social sciences. In JW Osborne (Ed.), Best practices in quantitative methods (pp. 125-136), Thousand Oak: Sage Publications. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412995627.d11
  • Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2005). The discipline and practice of qualitative research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Edwards, M.R. (2010). An integrative review of employer branding and OB theory. Personnel Review, 39(1), 5-23.
  • Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., Zapf, D. & Cooper, C.L. (2003). The concept of bullying at work: the European tradition in Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., Zapf, D. and Cooper, C.L. (Eds), Bully and Emotional Abuse in the Workplace, pp. 3-30. New York, NY, Taylor & Francis.
  • Gill, P., Stewart, K., Treasure, E., & Chadwick, B. (2008). Methods of data collection in qualitative research: Interviews and focus groups. British Dental Journal, 204, 291-295. https://doi.org/10.1038/bdj.2008.192
  • Gradinger, P., Strohmeier, D., & Spiel, C. (2009). Traditional bullying and cyberbullying: Identification of risk groups for adjustment problems. ZeitschriftfürPsychologie/Journal of Psychology, 217(4), 205-213. https://doi.org/10.1027/0044-3409.217.4.205
  • Grasso, B. C., Genest, R., Yung, K., & Arnold, C. (2014). Reducing errors in discharge medication lists by using personal digital assistants. American Psychiatric Association, 53(10), 1325-1326.
  • Greenberg, J. (1990). Organizational justice: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Journal of Management, 16(2), 399-432
  • Hassan, A. & Hashim, J. (2011). Role of organizational justice in determining work outcomes of national and expatriate academic staff in Malaysia," International Journal of Commerce and Management, 21, 82-93. https://doi.org/10.1108/10569211111111711
  • Heilmann, P.A.K. (2010). Employer brand image in a health care organization. Management Research Review, 33(2), 134-144. https://doi.org/10.1108/01409171011015829
  • Idris, M.K., O'Driscoll,M. P. & M. H. Anderson. M.H., (2011). Longitudinal mediation effects of strain on the relationships between role stressors and employees' withdrawal responses. Stress and Health, 27, 403-412. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.1392
  • Jacob, S. A., & Furgerson, S. P. (2012). Writing interview protocols and conducting interviews: Tips for students new to the field of qualitative research. The Qualitative Report, 17(42), 1-10.
  • Jiménez, P., Milfelner, B., Žižek, S. Š., & Dunkl, A. (2017). Moderating Effects between Job Insecurity and Intention to Quit in Samples of Slovene and Austrian Workers. Naše gospodarstvo/Our economy, 63(1), 27-37. https://doi.org/10.1515/ngoe-2017-0003
  • Juvonen, J., & Gross, E. (2008). Extending the school grounds?—Bullying experiences in cyberspace. Journal of School Health, 78(9), 496-505. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2008.00335.x
  • Kanji, G.K. and Malik, A.T.A. (1998). Total quality management and higher education in Malaysia', Total Quality Management, 9(4/5), 130-132. https://doi.org/10.1080/0954412988749
  • Kisely, S., & Kendall, E. (2011). Critically appraising qualitative research: A guide for clinicians more familiar with quantitative techniques. Australasian Psychiatry, 19(4), 364-367. https://doi.org/10.3109/10398562.2011.562508
  • Kowalski, R. (2008). Cyber bullying: Recognizing and treating victim and aggressor. Psychiatric Times, 25(11), 45-47.
  • Lambert, E. G. (2001). To stay or quit: A review of the literature on correctional staff turnover. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 26(1), 61-76. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02886857
  • Lievens, F. & Highhouse, S. (2003).The relation of instrumental and symbolic attributes to a company's attractiveness as an employer. Personnel Psychology, 56(1), 75-102. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2003.tb00144.x
  • Limber, S.P. & Small, M.A. (2003). State laws and policies to address bullying in schools. School Psychology Review, 23(3), 445-55.
  • March, J. G., & Simon, H. A. (1958) Organizations. New York: John Wiley. Meier.
  • Marczak, M., & Coyne, I. (2010). Cyberbullying at School: Good Practice and Legal Aspects in the United Kingdom. Australian Journal Of Guidance & Counseling, 20(2), 182-193. https://doi.org/10.1375/ajgc.20.2.182
  • Mesch, G. (2009). Parental mediation, online activities, and cyberbullying. CyberPsychology& Behavior, 12(4), 387-393.
  • Michell, T.R., Holtom, B.C., Lee, T., Sablynski, C.J. & Erez, M. (2001).Why people saty: using job embeddedness to perdict voluntary turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 44(6), 1102-1121. https://doi.org/10.2307/3069391
  • Mobley, W. H. (1977). Intermediate linkages in the relationship between job satisfaction and employee turnover. Journal of Applied Psychoology, 62(2), 237-240. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.62.2.237
  • Mobley, W. H. (1982). Employee turnover: Causes, consequences, and control. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Mosher.
  • Mohamed, M. (2006). Help academia to grow and excel. Supplement Edition, Malaysian Business, 16 April 2006.
  • Miles, M.B., & Hubermann, A.M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: A method sourcebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
  • Ministry of Education Malaysia. (2012). Private higher educational institutions. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  • Nazim A. (2008).Factors affecting overall job satisfaction and turnover intention. Journal of Managerial Sciences, 2(2), 239-252.
  • O'Connell, P.J., Calvert, E. and Watson, D. (2007). Bullying in the workplace: Survey reports, Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin.
  • O'Moore, M. and Kirkham, C. (2001).Self-esteem and its relationship to bullying behavior, Aggressive Behaviour, 27(4), 269-83. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.1010
  • Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research & evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Price, J. L. (2001) Reflections on the determinants of voluntary turnover, International Journal of Manpower, 22, 600-624.
  • Pride, W. M., & Ferrell, O. C. (2003). Marketing: Concepts and strategies. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
  • Rasmussen, J. (1983). Skills, rules, and knowledge; signals, signs, and symbols, and other distinctions in human performance models. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 3, 257- 266.
  • Rigby K., (2000). Effects of peer victimization in schools and perceived social support on adolescent well-being. Journal of Adolescence, 23(1), 57-68. https://doi.org/10.1006/jado.1999.0289
  • Russell, H., Searight, H. R., Mauldin, R. K., Ratwik, S., Conboy, R., & Searight, B. K.(2011). e-Research in the social sciences: The possibilities and the reality. Journal of Social Sciences, 3(2), 71-80.
  • Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. 2009, Research methods for business students, Harlow: Prentice Hall.
  • Stuckey, H. L. (2014). The first step in data analysis: Transcribing and managing qualitative research data. Journal of Social Health Diabetes, 2(1), 6-8. https://doi.org/10.4103/2321-0656.120254
  • Thillaisundaram, A. (2003). Measurement of teaching and research outputs in higher education. Journal of Economics Studies, 40(1/2), 1-21.
  • Thomas, E., & Magilvy, J. K. (2011). Qualitative rigor or research validity in qualitative research. Journal For Specialists In Pediatric Nursing, 16(2), 151-155. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6155.2011.00283.x
  • Towers Watson (2013). Towers Watson's general industry total rewards seminar. Malaysia: Towers Watson.
  • Tufford, L., & Newman, P. (2012). Bracketing in qualitative research. Qualitative Social Work, 11(1), 80-96.
  • West, D. (2012). How mobile devices are transforming healthcare. Issues in Technology Innovation, 18(1), 1-11.
  • Wheeler, A.R., Buckley, M.R., Halbesleben, J.R., Brouer, R.L. & Ferris, G.R. (2005). The elusive criterion of fit' revisited: Toward an integrative theory of multidimensional fit, In Martocchio, J. (Ed.), Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management, 24, Elsevier/JAI Press, Greenwich, CT, 265-304.

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.