Changeableness of selected characteristics of the head in the Rzeszów children and adolescents aged 4 to 18 in during a 35-year period
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Introduction. Over the past decades, anthropometric studies have focused more on secular changes in body height and weight, and less on changes in head features. Meanwhile, changing socio-economic conditions, especially the nutritional status of the human population, support the need to document some of the metric head features in children and adolescents. Aim. The aim of this study was to determine whether there has been changes over time in the morphological development of the head with respect to socio-economic conditions at the turn of the last century on sample population of children and adolescents from Rzeszów. Material and methods. In the years 1978/79, 1993/94, 2003/04 and 2013/14, a total of 9041 Rzeszów children aged 4 to 18 were examined. Anthropometric measurements were based on a technique developed by Martin and Saller. The following features were taken into account: head length and width, morphological face height, maximum face width, nose height and width, and head circumference. The relevant head, face and nose indices were calculated from the measured data. New indices for head circumference have also been proposed. Results. Such changes as head elongation, shortening of morphological face and nose height, and widening of the nose from hyperleptorrhinus to leptorrhinus were found in both sexes. Conclusions. 1. During the past 35 years there have been noticeable changes in the morphological characteristics of the head, face and nose. 2. Further follow-up to the development of head features is recommended.
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