Słowiańskie nazwy ‘źrenicy’ w świetle materiałów gwarowych i źródeł historycznych
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Slavic names of the ‘pupil’ (‘źrenica’) in the light of dialect materials and historic sourcesDespite a considerable mixture of names of “the pupil”, their collateral use and not quite distinct borders of ranges of specified lexemes, it is possible to specify several express, albeit not quite well-defined, areals (map 1).In Russia and in eastern regions of Belarus and Ukraine, the name *z//orčьkъ (// > d) dominates. In the areal of this name, it is possible to define the areal of a separate or collateral occurrence of names *Z//ьrъkъ, more rarely *z//irъkъ (Z > s, ž; // > v) southward and eastward from Moscow, names *ględělьce, *ględělьca and *ględělьcь in the vicinity of Pskov and Novgorod and *čьrnyšь, *čьrnyšьkъ and *čьrnyšьko in the north of Russia.In Poland and in the Czech Republic, *GЪpanьnъka (GЪ > ø) occur, besides, *zьrěnica also occurs in Poland.In Ukraine and in eastern Belarus, *čelověčьkъ dominates, while *čelověčьko is less numerous; in southern Bulgaria, Macedonia and in Slavic settlements on the territory of Greece and Turkey the forms *čELoVěčę, *čELověčьlę and *čELoVěčьčь (EL > ø; V > ø) dominate.In Serbia and Croatia and somewhat in Slovenia and south-western Bulgaria, the name *zěnica prevails.Map 2 (motivation map) shows most visibly two types: from the verbs meaning ‘patrzeć’ („to see”), which occur in the prevailing part of the Slavic territory, and from the words meaning persons and things that are reflected in „the pupil” (‘źrenica’) and are represented in western Ukraine and western Belarus, on the prevailing territory of Poland, in the Czech Republic and Moravia, in the south-eastern part of Slovakia and also in Macedonia, southern Bulgaria and in Slavic settlements on the territory of Greece and Turkey. Both of these types were registered as a certain mixed type, in particular, in eastern Ukraine and eastern Belarus.The names that are motivated by the black color of “the pupil” (‘źrenica’) are found mainly in northern russian and in southern Macedonian dialects; less frequently they appear in the territory of Austria and in Łużyce. Motivation types from the names meaning round, shining and luminous objects, and from the names that are diminutive names of the eye are very sporadic and occur in great dispersion.
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