Kwantyfikacyjne i egzystencjalne wykładniki afirmacji na przykładzie języka serbskiego
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Quantifiers and existentials as markers of affirmation in SerbianIn the paper I argue that quantifiers understood as numerical language expressions and the verb ‘to be’ are used to express and intensify affirmation in Serbian and other Slavic languages. I focus on two types of quantifiers: the universal quantifier, represented in Serbian by the lexeme svi and its derivatives, and the existential quantifier associated with the numeral jedan and the verb ‘to be’. Both types of quantifiers in analyzed contexts acquire secondary functions of affirmation markers. However, the scope of this type of affirmation marking is quite limited as very often the same words may be used in negative contexts. As a consequence, it is impossible to describe this function referring to any strict logical rules, but it is better to regard it as a metaphorical extension. Thus, the use of universal quantifier as a marker or intensifier of affirmation is believed to be best described as being based on the conceptual metaphor AFFIRMATION IS COMPLETENESS and the intensification of affirmation in the case of existential quantifier and the verb ‘to be’ relies on the metaphor AFFIRMATION IS EXISTENCE.
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