PL EN


2017 | 12 | 14-24
Article title

The effects of language policy in China A

Authors
Content
Title variants
PL
Efekty polityki językowej w Chinach
Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
EN
The population of China consists of 56 officially recognised ethnic groups, which speak (depending on the criteria used) from 135 to nearly 300 languages. About 90% of the population declare themselves as belonging to the Han-Chinese nationality. The language spoken by this majority is by no means uniform, the varieties of Chinese are so diversified, that most of them are mutually unintelligible, and some linguists even call them separate languages. The remaining 10% speak languages that are classified into five language families. Is it possible to introduce one common language in a country with the largest population on Earth? China has been carrying out such a language policy since the 1950s. The goal is to spread the national standard – Mandarin, or Putonghua, all over the country, so that all inhabitants could communicate freely. This idealistic work is already very advanced and it has caused vast changes in the linguistic landscape of China. Not all the rights of minority languages declared in the constitution are respected. Also the non-Mandarin varieties of Chinese are subject to unification and noticeable changes are ongoing in the local tongues. This paper shows the various aspects of Chinese language policy, the positive and negative effects it has on the languages spoken in China.
PL
Ludność Chin składa się z 56 oficjalnie uznanych grup etnicznych, które posługują się (w zależności od zastosowanych kryteriów) od 135 do prawie 300 językami. Około 90% populacji deklaruje przynależność do narodowości Han. Język używany przez tę większość nie jest bynajmniej jednolity; odmiany chińskiego są tak zróżnicowane, że większość z nich jest wzajemnie niezrozumiała, a niektórzy lingwiści nazywają je nawet odrębnymi językami. Pozostałe 10% mówi językami, które są podzielone na pięć rodzin językowych. Czy jest możliwe wprowadzenie jednego wspólnego języka w kraju o największej populacji na Ziemi? Chiny prowadzą taką politykę językową od lat pięćdziesiątych. Celem jest rozpowszechnienie krajowego standardu – mandaryńskiego (putonghua) w całym kraju, tak, aby wszyscy mieszkańcy mogli swobodnie się komunikować. To idealistyczne dzieło jest już bardzo zaawansowane i spowodowało ogromne zmiany w językowym krajobrazie Chin. Nie wszystkie zawarte w konstytucji prawa języków mniejszości są respektowane. Również nie-mandaryńskie odmiany chińskie podlegają unifikacji, a w lokalnych językach zachodzą zauważalne zmiany. W niniejszym artykule przedstawiono różne aspekty chińskiej polityki językowej; pozytywne i negatywne skutki, jakie ma ona dla języków używanych w Chinach.
Year
Issue
12
Pages
14-24
Physical description
Dates
published
2019-03-28
Contributors
References
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Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.ojs-doi-10_14746_jki_2017_12_1
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