PL EN


2017 | 4 | 73-88
Article title

Political implications of new social thinking: byproduct of the privatization of the kibbutzim

Authors
Content
Title variants
PL
Polityczne implikacje nowego myślenia społecznego: produkt uboczny prywatyzacji kibuców
Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
EN
In the 1980s the kibbutzim suffered a severe economic and demographic crisis, which endangered the continuation of their existence as cooperative communities. The solution was to adopt steps, taken from the ideas of the free market. Beyond the increase of economic efficiency, the rearrangement of the community under new rules was accompanied by political influence, as can be seen in the change of the voting pattern of the kibbutzim members to the Knesset. The main argument is that the arrangement of kibbutz society under the new rules brought into the kibbutz a new social discourse that completely changed the way in which the individual defines himself in social and political terms. The political byproduct was that the Left parties that in the past served as a prototype for the socialist identity were perceived as not relevant to the new social identity, in favor of steadily increasing support for the center parties. To track the change in the political identity, we chose to examine from up close three kibbutzim found at different stages of the change processes: Kibbutz Deganya A, Kibbutz Mizra, and Kibbutz Ein Dor. The objective was not only to identify which group in the kibbutz changed its political identity but primarily, to examine how the penetration of the new social knowledge contributed to this. The findings revealed a large gap in the perception of reality primarily between two age groups in the kibbutz. Unlike the older generation, the younger employed neo-liberal social representations to define itself, the community, and the political system. The left parties, like the old kibbutz, were perceived as old, inefficient, and thus not relevant for it in the voting for the Knesset.
PL
W latach osiemdziesiątych dwudziestego wieku kibuce dotknął poważny kryzys gospodarczy i demograficzny, który zagroził ich dalszemu istnieniu w formie społeczności spółdzielczych. Rozwiązaniem było podjęcie kroków inspirowanych ideami wolnego rynku. Wzrostowi efektywności gospodarczej i przeorganizowaniu wspólnoty zgodnie z nowymi regułami towarzyszyły skutki w sferze politycznej, co widać w zmianie sposobu głosowania członków kibuców w wyborach do Knesetu. Główna teza artykułu głosi, że zorganizowanie społeczności kibuców według nowych zasad wprowadziło do nich nowy dyskurs społeczny, który całkowicie zmienił sposób, w jaki jednostka określa się w kategoriach społecznych i politycznych. Politycznym produktem ubocznym było to, że partie lewicowe, które w przeszłości stanowiły prototyp tożsamości socjalistycznej, zaczęły być postrzegane jako nieadekwatne wobec nowej tożsamości społecznej, w której nastąpił stały wzrost poparcia dla partii centrowych. W celu prześledzenia zmiany tożsamości politycznej, postanowiliśmy zbadać z bliska trzy kibuce znajdujące się na różnych etapach procesów zmian: kibuc Deganya A, kibuc Mizra i kibuc Ein Dor. Celem badań było nie tylko ustalenie, która grupa w kibucu zmieniła swoją tożsamość polityczną, ale przede wszystkim zbadanie, w jaki sposób przyczyniło się do tego zdobycie nowej wiedzy społecznej. Wyniki ujawniły duży rozziew w postrzeganiu rzeczywistości, głównie między dwiema grupami wiekowymi w kibucu. W przeciwieństwie do starszych, młodsze pokolenie zastosowało neoliberalne reprezentacje społeczne do zdefiniowania siebie, społeczności i systemu politycznego. Partie lewicowe, podobnie jak dawne kibuce, zaczęto postrzegać jako przestarzałe, nieskuteczne, a zatem niemające znaczenia w głosowaniu w wyborach do Knesetu.
Year
Issue
4
Pages
73-88
Physical description
Dates
published
2017-12-15
Contributors
  • The Max Stern Jezreel Valley College
References
  • Arian A., Shamir M. (2001), Candidates, parties, and blocs, in: The elections in Israel 1999, eds. A. Arian, M. Shamir, State University of New York Press, New York, pp. 11–34.
  • Bauer M. W., Gaskell G. (1999), Towards a paradigm for research on social representations, “Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior”, 29(2), pp. 163–186.
  • Bein A. (1976), History of the Jewish settlement In Israel, Massada, Tel-Aviv [Hebrew].
  • Ben-Rafael E., Ya’ar E., Soker Z. (2000), The kibbutz and Israeli society, The Open University of Israel, Tel-Aviv [Hebrew].
  • Ben-Rafael E., Topel M. (2009), The kibbutz on paths apart, Yad-Tabenkin, Jerusalem [Hebrew].
  • Ben-Rafael E., Topel M. (2011), Redefining the kibbutz, in: One hundred years of kibbutz life, eds. M. Palgi, S. Reinharz, Praeger Publishers, New Brunswick–London, pp. 249–258.
  • Breakwell G. M., Canter D. V. (1993), Aspects of methodology and their implications for study of social representations, in: Empirical approaches to social representations, eds. G. M Breakwell, D. V. Canter, Oxford University Press, pp. 1–11.
  • Carvalho W., Andrade M. S. (2013), Social representations formulated by high school students, “Estudos De Psicologia”, 30(1), pp. 29–37.
  • Darin-Drabkin H. (1961), The outer society: kibbutz in the test of economy and society, Hakibbutz Hartzi, Merhavia [Hebrew].
  • Doise W. (1993), Debating social representations, in: Empirical approaches to social representations, eds. G. M Breakwell, D. V. Canter, Oxford University Press, pp. 157–170.
  • Elcheroth G., Doise W., Reicher S. (2011), On the knowledge of politics and the politics of knowledge: How a social representations approach helps us rethink the subject of political psychology, “Political Psychology”, 32(5), pp. 729–758.
  • Farr R. M. (1984), Social representations and laboratory experiments, in: Social representations, eds. R. M Farr, S. Moscovici, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 125–147.
  • Gavron D. (2000), The kibbutz: Awakening from utopia, Rowman & Littlefield, Boston.
  • Good D. (1993), The problems of investigating social representations: Linguistic parallels, in: Empirical approaches to social representations, eds. G. M. Breakwell, D. V. Canter, Oxford University Press, pp. 171–179.
  • Hakim R. (2009), The kibbutzim in Israel: an economic and historic overview, Yad-Ya’ari, Tel-Aviv [Hebrew].
  • Horowitz D., Lissak M. (1977), From Yishuv to statehood, Am Oved, Tel-Aviv [Hebrew].
  • Israel Central Bureau Statistic (1949–2015), Annual data, Jerusalem [Hebrew].
  • Israel Central Elections Committee (2001–2015), Elections results, Jerusalem [Hebrew].
  • Jasper J., Fraser C. (1984), Attitudes and social representations, in: Social representations, eds. R. M. Farr, S. Moscovici, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 101–123.
  • Lanir J. (1990), The kibbutz as political system: conservation, modification, change, Yad-Tabenkin, Tel-Aviv [Hebrew].
  • Lanir J. (1993), The demographic crisis in the kibbutz: quantitative causes as variables of change and development in the demographic structure of the kibbutz, Yad-Tabenkin, Ramat Efal [Hebrew].
  • Leviatan U. (2003), Is it the end of Utopia?, Haifa University Press, Haifa [Hebrew].
  • McKinlay A., Potter J., Wetherel M. (1993), Discourse analysis and social representations, in: Empirical approaches to social representations, eds. G. M. Breakwell, D. V Canter, Oxford University Press, pp. 134–156.
  • Moscovici S. (1984), The phenomenon of social representation, in: Social representation, eds. R. M. Farr, S. Moscovici, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 3–69.
  • Near H. (1992), The kibbutz movement. A history (volume I): Origins and growth, 1909–1939, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Pavin A. (1992), The emergence of collective awareness of the kibbutz crisis, Yad-Tabenkin, Ramat Efal [Hebrew].
  • Rosolio D. (1999), System and crisis: crisis, adjustments and changes, Am Oved, Tel-Aviv [Hebrew].
  • Russell R., Hanneman R., Getz S. (2011), The transformation of the kibbutzim, “Israel Studies”, 16(2), pp. 109–126.
  • Shepher J. (1977), Introduction to the sociology of the kibbutz, Ruppin Academic Center, Tel-Aviv [Hebrew].
  • Shlasky S. (1997), Changes in the kibbutz as reflected in research: finding and their meanings, Yad- Ya’ari, Givat Haviva [Hebrew].
  • Shoshani E. (1973), The commune and the kibbutz in Israel, Davar, Tel-Aviv [Hebrew].
  • Talmon-Garber Y. (1970), The kibbutz: sociological studies, Hebrew University Press, Jerusalem [Hebrew].
  • Wagner W. (2007), Social representation theory as an approach to societal psychology, in: The familiar and the unfamiliar, social representations of Israeli societies, eds. E. Orr, S. Ben-Asher, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev press, Jerusalem, pp. 68–101.
  • Wagner W., Duveen G., Farr R. M., Jovchelovitch S., Lorenzi-Cioldi F., Markova I., Rose D. (1999), Theory and method of social representations, “Asian Journal of Social Psychology”, 2(1), pp. 95–125.
  • Ya’ar E., Shavit Z. (2001), Trends in Israeli society, The Open University of Israel, Tel-Aviv [Hebrew].
  • Yanai N. (2001), The emergence of the center party in the elections 1999, in: The elections in Israel 1999, eds. A. Arian, M. Shamir, State University of New York Press, New York, pp. 315–351.
  • Yatziv G. (1999), The sectorial society, Bialik Institue, Jerusalem [Hebrew].
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.ojs-doi-10_14746_pp_2017_22_4_7
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.