Gemstones from the ducal part of the fortified settlement of Poznań (10th/11th century) in the light of gemological studies and micro-Raman spectroscopy
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During archaeological excavations in Poznań there were discovered a ducal palace, a chapel dated to the 10th century, and goldsmith’s workshop adjacent to them. In the layer of ashes at the bottom of the manufacture, there were fragments of gold found together with numerous glass beads and gems. Fourteen gems, made of rock crystal, agate, carnelian, milky chalcedony, garnet, were chosen for gemstone analysis and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The study material is dominated by beads (12 samples, of which six is faceted and six globular), while two pyrope samples have the cabochon cut. It should be emphasized that the rock crystal gems in the collection are usually heptagonal. Majority of the Poznań collection is of high quality, which is a sign of an advanced grinding and faceting technology. Pyrope from the Poznań collection contains inclusions of apatite, rutile, quartz, and magnetite, identified with micro-Raman spectroscopy. A similar combination of inclusions was recognized in pyrope from deposits in Vestřev near Turnov (Bohemia), and hence it indicates that the artifacts from Poznań were made of the pyrope from those deposits. Considering inclusions in rock crystal artifacts from the Poznań collection it was assumed that the mineral was also of the Bohemian origin.
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