PL EN


2020 | 10 | 3 | 631-655
Article title

Teachers’ self‐reported L1 and L2 use and self‐assessed L2 proficiency in primary EFL education

Content
Title variants
Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
EN
This study investigates teachers’ first language (L1, German) and second language (L2, English) use in the primary English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom in two federal German states. It particularly focuses on the question of whether a more frequent, (self-reported) use of the L2 is positively correlated to teachers’ professional qualification as well as (self-assessed) L2 proficiency. To this end, data was collected in 2017 through an online survey among German primary teachers teaching EFL in year 4 (N = 844). L2 use was assessed through a 4-point Likert scale comprising 16 items on various classroom situations. L1 use was surveyed with an open question on situations of L1 use in the L2 classroom. Moreover, teachers self-assessed their L2 proficiency with a 4-point Likert scale and adapted CEFR descriptors for speaking. Findings indicate that teachers claim to use the L2 more in L2-related situations and the L1 more in classroom management situations. The study shows that teachers with a higher formal qualification tend to assess their L2 proficiency higher and claim to use the L2 more often in the primary EFL classroom. In contrast, teachers with a lower formal qualification tend to assess their L2 proficiency lower and claim to use the L1 more frequently in the L2 classroom.
Year
Volume
10
Issue
3
Pages
631-655
Physical description
Dates
published
2020-09-30
Contributors
author
References
  • Atkinson, D. (1987). The mother tongue in the classroom: A neglected resource? ELT Journal, 41(4), 241-247.
  • Auerbach, E. R. (1993). Reexamining English only in the ESL classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 27(1), 9-32.
  • Barucki, H., Bliesener, U., Börner, O., Böttger, H., Hoffmann, I.‑B., Kierepka, A., & Schlüter, N. (2015). Der Lernstand im Englischunterricht am Ende von Klasse 4: Ergebnisse der BIG-Studie. München: Domino.
  • Bhooth, A., Azman, H., & Ismail, K. (2014). The role of the L1 as a scaffolding tool in the EFL reading classroom. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 118, 76-84.
  • Butzkamm, W., & Caldwell, J. A. W. (2009). The bilingual reform: A paradigm shift in foreign language teaching. Tübingen: Narr.
  • Cameron, L. (2001). Teaching languages to young learners. Cambridge: CUP.
  • Clotfelter, C. T., Ladd, H. F., & Vigdor, J. L. (2010). Teacher credentials and student achievement in high school: A cross-subject analysis with student fixed effects. Journal of Human Resources, 45(3), 655-681.
  • Cook, V. (2001). Using the first language in the classroom. Canadian Modern Language Review, 57(3), 402-423.
  • Cortina, K. S., & Thames, M. H. (2013). Teacher education in Germany. In M. Kunter, J. Baumert, W. Blum, U. Klusmann, S. Krauss, & M. Neubrand (Eds.), Mathematics teacher education: Vol. 8. Cognitive activation in the mathematics classroom and professional competence of teachers: Results from the COACTIV project (pp. 49-62). New York: Springer.
  • Council of Europe (2001). Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment (CEFR). Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
  • Cummins, J. (2007). Rethinking monolingual instructional strategies in multilingual classrooms. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 10(2), 221-240.
  • DESI-Konsortium. (Ed.) (2008). Unterricht und Kompetenzerwerb in Deutsch und Englisch: Ergebnisse der DESI-Studie. Weinheim: Beltz.
  • Deters-Philipp, A.‑C. (2018). Lehrersprache im Englischunterricht an deutschen Grundschulen. Münster: Waxmann.
  • Dörr, S. (2018). Lehrer- und Schülersprache im Englischunterricht der bayerischen Mittelschule. Münster: Waxmann.
  • Garton, S. (2019). Early language learning teacher education: Present and future. In S. Zein & S. Garton (Eds.), Early language learning and teacher education: International research and practice (pp. 265-276). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
  • Goldhaber, D. D., & Brewer, D. J. (2000). Does teacher certification matter? High school teacher certification status and student achievement. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 22(2), 129-145.
  • Hall, G., & Cook, G. (2013). Own-language use in ELT: Exploring global practices and attitudes. ELT Research Papers, 13(1), 1-49.
  • Helmke, T., Helmke, A., Schrader, F., Wagner, W., Nold, G., & Schröder, K. (2008). Die Videostudie des Englischunterrichts. In DESI-Konsortium (Ed.), Beltz Pädagogik. Unterricht und Kompetenzerwerb in Deutsch und Englisch: Ergebnisse der DESI-Studie (pp. 345-363). Weinheim: Beltz.
  • Hobbs, L. (2013). Teaching ‘out-of-field’ as a boundary-crossing event: Factors shaping teacher identity. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 11(2), 271-297. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-012-9333-4
  • Hoffmann, L., & Richter, D. (2016). Aspekte der Aus- und Fortbildung von Deutsch- und Englischlehrkräften im Ländervergleich. In P. Stanat, K. Böhme, S. Schipolowski, & N. Haag (Eds.), IQB-Bildungstrend 2015: Sprachliche Kompetenzen am Ende der 9. Jahrgangsstufe im zweiten Ländervergleich (pp. 481-507). Münster: Waxmann.
  • Inbar-Lourie, O. (2010). English only? The linguistic choices of teachers of young EFL learners. International Journal of Bilingualism, 14(3), 351-367. http://doi.org/10.1177/1367006910367849
  • Izquierdo, J., García Martínez, V., Garza Pulido, M. G., & Aquino Zúñiga, S. P. (2016). First and target language use in public language education for young learners: Longitudinal evidence from Mexican secondary-school classrooms. System, 61, 20-30. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2016.07.006
  • KMK. (2013). Fremdsprachen in der Grundschule - Sachstand und Konzeptionen 2013: Beschluss der Kultusministerkonferenz vom 17.10.2013: Sekretariat der Ständigen Konferenz der Kulturminister der Länder in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland.
  • Kohlbacher, F. (2006). The use of qualitative content analysis in case study research, 7(1), Art. 21. http://doi.org/10.17169/FQS-7.1.75
  • La Campa, J. C. de, & Nassaji, H. (2009). The amount, purpose, and reasons for using L1 in L2 classrooms. Foreign Language Annals, 42(4), 742-759.
  • Lee, J. H., & Levine, G. S. (2018). The effects of instructor language choice on second language vocabulary learning and listening comprehension. Language Teaching Research, 39, 1-23. http://doi.org/10.1177/1362168818770910
  • Lee, J. H., & Lo, Y. Y. (2017). An exploratory study on the relationships between attitudes toward classroom language choice, motivation, and proficiency of EFL learners. System, 67, 121-131. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2017.04.017
  • Lee, J. H., & Macaro, E. (2013). Investigating age in the use of L1 or English-only instruction: Vocabulary acquisition by Korean EFL learners. Modern Language Journal, 97(4), 887-901. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2013.12044.x
  • Macaro, E., & Lee, J. H. (2013). Teacher language background, codeswitching, and English-only instruction: Does age make a difference to learners’ attitudes? TESOL Quarterly, 47(4), 717-742.
  • Macaro, E., Tian, L., & Chu, L. (2018). First and second language use in English medium instruction contexts. Language Teaching Research, 2, 1-21. http://doi.org/10.1177/1362168818783231
  • Macías, D. F. (2018). Classroom management in foreign language education: An exploratory review. Profile: Issues in Teachers´ Professional Development, 20(1), 153-166. http://doi.org/10.15446/profile.v20n1.60001
  • McMillan, B. A., & Rivers, D. J. (2011). The practice of policy: Teacher attitudes toward “English only”. System, 39(2), 251-263. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2011.04.011
  • MSW NRW. (2008). Richtlinien und Lehrpläne für die Grundschule in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Düsseldorf: MSW NRW.
  • Nakatsukasa, K., & Loewen, S. (2015). A teacher’s first language use in form-focused episodes in Spanish as a foreign language classroom. Language Teaching Research, 19(2), 133-149. http://doi.org/10.1177/1362168814541737
  • NKM. (2006). Kerncurriculum für die Grundschule. Schuljahrgänge 3-4. Hannover: Niedersächsisches Kultusministerium.
  • Ott, N. F. (2011). Codeswitching im Englischunterricht der Grundschule. Immersion als erfolgreicher Weg zum Zweitspracherwerb? Beiträge Zur Fremdsprachenvermittlung, 51, 51-75.
  • Paker, T., & Karaağaç, Ö. (2015). The use and functions of mother tongue in EFL classes. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 199, 111-119.
  • Porsch, R. (2017). Spezialisten oder Generalisten? Eine Betrachtung der Fachausbildung von Grundschullehrerinnen und -lehrern in Deutschland. In M. Radhoff & S. Wieckert (Eds.), Studien zur Schulpädagogik: Vol. 84. Grundschule im Wandel (pp. 151-162). Hamburg: Kovac.
  • Porsch, R. (2020). Fachfremdes Unterrichten in Deutschland: Welche Rolle spielt die Lehrerbildung? In R. Porsch & B. Rösken-Winter (Eds.), Professionelles Handeln im fachfremd erteilten Mathematikunterricht: Empirische Befunde und Fortbildungskonzepte (pp. 29-47). Wiesbaden: Springer Spektrum. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-27293-7_2
  • Porsch, R., & Wendt, H. (2017). Mathematikunterricht und Studienschwerpunkte der Lehrkräfte: Gibt es Auswirkungen auf die Mathematikleistungen von Grundschülerinnen und -schülern? Nationale Befunde aus TIMSS 2011. Unterrichtswissenschaft, 45(2), 115-135. http://doi.org/10.3262/UW1702114
  • Porsch, R., & Whanell, R. (2019). Out-of-field teaching affecting students and learning: What is known and unknown. In L. Hobbs & G. Törner (Eds.), Examining the phenomenon of “Teaching out-of-field”: International perspectives on teaching as a non-specialist (179-191). Singapore: Springer. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-3366-8_7
  • Porsch, R., & Wilden, E. (2017). The introduction of EFL in primary education in Germany: A view from implementation research. In E. Wilden & R. Porsch (Eds.), The professional development of primary EFL teachers: National and international research (pp. 59-75). Münster: Waxmann.
  • Rixon, S. (2013). British Council survey of policy and practice in primary English language teaching worldwide. London: British Council.
  • Rolin-Ianziti, J., & Varshney, R. (2008). Students’ views regarding the use of the first language: An exploratory study in a tertiary context maximizing target language use. Canadian Modern Language Review, 65(2), 249-273. http://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.65.2.249
  • Sali, P. (2014). An analysis of the teachers’ use of L1 in Turkish EFL classrooms. System, 42, 308-318. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2013.12.021
  • Schreier, M. (2012). Qualitative content analysis in practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
  • Shabir, M. (2017). Student-teachers’ beliefs on the use of L1 in EFL classroom: A global perspective. English Language Teaching, 10(4), 45-52. http://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v10n4p45
  • Tian, L., & Macaro, E. (2012). Comparing the effect of teacher codeswitching with English-only explanations on the vocabulary acquisition of Chinese university students: A lexical focus-on-form study. Language Teaching Research, 16(3), 367-391. http://doi.org/10.1177/1362168812436909
  • Turnbull, M. (2001). There is a role for the L1 in second and foreign language teaching, but… Canadian Modern Language Review, 57(4), 531-540. http://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.57.4.531
  • Unsworth, S., Persson, L., Prins, T., & de Bot, K. (2015). An investigation of factors affecting early foreign language learning in the Netherlands. Applied Linguistics, 36(5), 527-548. http://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amt052
  • Wagner, W., Helmke, A., & Rösner, E. (2009). Deutsch Englisch Schülerleistungen international: Dokumentation der Erhebungsinstrumente für Schülerinnen und Schüler, Eltern und Lehrkräfte. Frankfurt: GFPF.
  • Wilden, E., & Porsch, R. (2020). A critical analysis of the German public debate about an early start in primary foreign language education. Language Teaching for Young Learners, 2(2), 55-83. http://doi.org/10.1075/ltyl.19019.wil
  • Zech, J. (2019). Primary EFL teachers’ language use in class: An empirical study. (Unpublished master thesis). University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany.
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.ojs-doi-10_14746_ssllt_2020_10_3_9
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.