Foreign Language Learners Acquire L2 Phonetic Detail: Goose and Foot Fronting in Non-Native English
Languages of publication
Whether late learners discern fine phonetic detail in second-language (L2) input, form new phonetic categories, and realize them accurately remains a relevant question in L2 phonology, especially for foreign-language (FL) learning characterized by limited exposure to interactional native input. Our study focuses on advanced Czech learners’ production of the L2 English vowels GOOSE and FOOT. While English /u/ and /ʊ/ have been undergoing fronting, their Czech equivalents, /uː/ and /u/, are fully back. We show that although the spectral differentiation of /u/-/ʊ/ is smaller in the learners’ than in native speech, the vowels being contrasted primarily in length, even FL learners can shift their L2 sound categories towards native-like targets, or in this case, produce English /u/-/ʊ/ as fronted.
- Baker, Wendy and Pavel Trofimovich. 2006. Perceptual paths to accurate production of L2 vowels: The role of individual differences. IRAL–International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching 44(3). 231-250.
- Bauer, Laurie. 1985. Tracing phonetic change in the received pronunciation of British English. Journal of Phonetics 13 (1). 61-81.
- Best, Catherine T. 1995. A direct realist view of cross-language speech perception. In Winifred Strange (ed.), Speech Perception and Linguistic Experience: Issues in Cross-Language Research, 171-204. Timonium, MD: York Press.
- Best, Catherine T. and Michael D. Tyler. 2007. Nonnative and second-language speech perception: Commonalities and complementarities. In Ocke-Schwen Bohn and Murray J. Munro (eds.), Language experience in second language learning: In honor of James Emil Flege, 13-34. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
- Boersma, Paul and David Weenink. Praat: doing phonetics by computer [Computer program], Version 6.0.18, retrieved 26 May 2016 from http://www.praat.org/
- Bohn, Ocke-Schwen and James Emil Flege. 1992. The production of new and similar vowels by adult German learners of English. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 14(02). 131-158.
- Chládková, Kateřina, Paola Escudero and Silvia C. Lipski. 2013. Pre-attentive sensitivity to vowel duration reveals native phonology and predicts learning of second-language sounds. Brain and language 126(3). 243-252.
- Chládková, Kateřina and Silke Hamann. 2011. High vowels in Southern British English: /u/-fronting does not result in merger. In Wai-Sum, Lee and Eric Zee (eds.), Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences; August 17–21, 2011, City University of Hong Kong, China, 476-479. Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong.
- Clopper, Cynthia G., David B. Pisoni and Kenneth De Jong. 2005. Acoustic characteristics of the vowel systems of six regional varieties of American English. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 118(3). 1661-1676.
- Cox, Felicity. 1999. Vowel change in Australian English. Phonetica 56(1-2). 1-27.
- Cruttenden, Alan. 2014. Gimson's Pronunciation of English, 8th edition. London and New York: Routledge.
- De Jong, Gea, et al. 2007. The speaker discriminating power of sounds undergoing historical change: A formant-based study. In Ingmar Steiner (ed.), Proceedings of the 16th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, August 2007, Saarbrücken, Germany, 1813-1816.
- Deterding, David. 1997. The formants of monophthong vowels in Standard Southern British English pronunciation. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 27(1-2). 47-55.
- Fabricius, Anne. 2007. Vowel formants and angle measurements in diachronic sociophonetic studies: FOOT-fronting in RP. In Ingmar Steiner (ed.), Proceedings of the 16th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, August 2007, Saarbrücken, Germany, 1477-1480.
- Ferragne, Emmanuel and Francois Pellegrino. 2010. Formant frequencies of vowels in 13 accents of the British Isles, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 40. 1–34.
- Flege, James. E. 1995. Second language speech learning: Theory, findings, and problems. In Winifred Strange (ed.), Speech perception and linguistic experience: Issues in cross-language research, 233-277. Timonium, MD: York Press.
- Flege, James. E. 1987. Effects of equivalence classification on the production of foreign language speech sounds. In Allan James and Jonathan Leather (eds.), Sound patterns in second language acquisition, 9-39. Dordrecht: Foris.
- Flege, James E. 2009. Give input a chance! In Thorsten Piske and Martha Young-Scholten (eds.), Input matters in SLA, 175-190. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
- Flege, James E., Ocke-Schwen Bohn and Sunyoung Jang. 1997. Effects of experience on non-native speakers' production and perception of English vowels. Journal of Phonetics 25(4). 437-470.
- Flege, James E., Elaina M. Frieda and Takeshi Nozawa. 1997. Amount of native-language (L1) use affects the pronunciation of an L2. Journal of Phonetics 25(2). 169-186.
- Flege, James E., Naoyuki Takagi and Virginia Mann. 1995. Japanese adults can learn to produce English /r/ and /l/accurately. Language and Speech 38(1). 25-55.
- Gimson, Alfred. C. 1966. An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English. London: Arnold.
- Guion, Susan G., James E. Flege and Jonathan D. Loftin. 2000. The effect of L1 use on pronunciation in Quichua–Spanish bilinguals. Journal of Phonetics 28(1). 27-42.
- Haddican, Bill, et al. 2013. Interaction of social and linguistic constraints on two vowel changes in northern England. Language Variation and Change 25(03). 371-403.
- Harrington, Jonathan, Felicitas Kleber and Ulrich Reubold. 2008. Compensation for coarticulation, /u/-fronting, and sound change in standard southern British: An acoustic and perceptual study. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 123(5). 2825-2835.
- Harrington, Jonathan, Felicitas Kleber and Ulrich Reubold. 2011. The contributions of the lips and the tongue to the diachronic fronting of high back vowels in Standard Southern British English. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 41(02). 137-156.
- Hawkins, Sarah and Jonathan Midgley. 2005. Formant frequencies of RP monophthongs in four age groups of speakers. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35(02). 183-199.
- Hillenbrand, James, et al. 1995. Acoustic characteristics of American English vowels. The Journal of the Acoustical society of America 97(5). 3099-3111.
- Jacewicz, Ewa, Robert A. Fox and Joseph Salmons. 2011. Vowel change across three age groups of speakers in three regional varieties of American English. Journal of Phonetics 39(4). 683-693.
- Jansen, Sandra. 2010. High back vowel fronting in the north-west of England. In Calamai Silvia, Chiara Celata & Luca ciucci (eds.), Proceedings of Sociophonetics, at the crossroads of speech variation, processing and communication, 29-32. Pisa, Edizioni della Normale.
- Koops, Christian. 2010. /u/-Fronting is not Monolithic: Two Types of Fronted/u/in Houston Anglos. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 16(2). 113-122.
- Kuhl, Patricia K., et al. 2008. Phonetic learning as a pathway to language: new data and native language magnet theory expanded (NLM-e). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 363(1493), 979-1000.
- Labov, William. 2008. Triggering events. In Susan M. Fitzmaurice and Donka Minkova (eds.), Studies in the history of the English language IV: empirical and analytical advances in the study of English language change, vol. 61, 11-54. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
- Labov, William, Sharon Ash and Charles Boberg. 2006. Atlas of North American English: Phonology and phonetics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
- Macaulay, R. K. 1977. Languages social class and education: A Glasgow Study. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
- Maclagan, Margaret, et al. 2009. /u/ fronting and /t/ aspiration in Māori and New Zealand English. Language Variation and Change 21(02). 175-192.
- Mesthrie, Rajend. 2010. Socio-phonetics and social change: Deracialisation of the GOOSE vowel in South African English. Journal of Sociolinguistics 14(1). 3-33.
- Peterson, Gordon E. and Harold L. Barney. 1952. Control methods used in a study of the vowels. The Journal of the acoustical society of America 24(2). 175-184.
- Podlipský, Václav. J. 2004. Acquisition of English /i, ɪ, ε, æ, ʊ, u/ by Czech learners. Unpublished master’s thesis. Palacký University Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic.
- Podlipský, Václav J., Radek Skarnitzl and Jan Volín. 2009. High front vowels in Czech: A contrast in quantity or quality? INTERSPEECH-2009, 132-135. [Online] Available from http://www.isca-speech.org/archive/interspeech_2009 [Accessed on 10February 2017].
- Scobbie, James M., Eleanor Lawson and Jane Stuart-Smith. 2012. Back to front: a socially-stratified ultrasound tongue imaging study of Scottish English /u/. Rivista di Linguistica/Italian Journal of Linguistics, Special Issue: Articulatory techniques for sociophonetic research 24(1). 103-148.
- Šimáčková, Šárka. 2003. Engela’s Eshes”: Cross-linguistic perception and production of English [æ] and [ɛ] by Czech EFL learners trained in phonetics. In Solé, Maria-Josep, Daniel Recasens and Joaquín Romero (eds.), Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS 2003), Barcelona, 3-9 August, 2003, 2293-2296.
- Šimáčková, Šárka and Václav J. Podlipský. 2015. Immediate phonetic interference in code-switching and interpreting. Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Glasgow, UK 2015. Paper number 552.
- Šimáčková, Šárka, Podlipský, Václav J. and Kateřina Chládková. 2012. Czech spoken in Bohemia and Moravia. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 42(02). 225-232.
- Skarnitzl, Radek. 2012. Dvojí i v české výslovnosti [Two pronunciations of i in Czech]. Naše řeč 3. 141-153.
- Skarnitzl, Radek and Jan Volín. 2012. Referenční hodnoty vokalických formantů pro mladé dospělé mluvčí standardní češtiny [Reference values of vocalic formants for young adult speakers of standard Czech]. Akustické listy 18. 7-11.
- Syrdal, Ann K. and Hundrai S. Gopal. 1986. A perceptual model of vowel recognition based on the auditory representation of American English vowels. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Americ 79(4). 1086-1100.
- Tees, Richard C. and Janet F. Werker. 1984. Perceptual flexibility: maintenance or recovery of the ability to discriminate non-native speech sounds. Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie 38(4). 579.
- Thomas, Erik R. and Tyler Kendall. 2007. NORM: The vowel normalization and plotting suite. [Online Resource: http://ncslaap.lib.ncsu.edu/tools/norm/ ]
- Verhelst, Norman, et al. 2009. Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
- Wells, John. C. 1982. Accents of English (Vol. 1). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Publication order reference