“Particular Churches, in which and from which, the one and only Catholic Church exists, are principally dioceses. Unless the contrary is clear, the following are equivalent to a diocese: a territorial prelature, a territorial abbacy, a vicariate apostolic, a prefecture apostolic and a permanently established apostolic administration” (canon 368 of the Code of Canon Law). In December 2016, the Bishop of Tarnów convened the 5th Synod of the Diocese of Tarnów. The main purpose of a Synod – in the opinion of the Bishop of Tarnów – was to demonstrate the spiritual, pastoral and material heritage of the Christ’s Church in the Diocese of Tarnów; to revive faith, hope and love in the personal and community relationship with Christ in the Church; and to indicate new pastoral ways in the changeability of the world towards the unchangeability of Christ. Taking this into consideration the article analyzes the following issues: the definition of a synod; the purpose of a synod; convocation of and presiding over a diocesan synod; the preparation of a synod; Pope Francis about synodality, and finally “The Church is our neighbour” – a synod as an expression of love for the Church.