Przemiany w strukturze zawodowej w Toruniu w latach 1884–1908 w świetle ksiąg adresowych. Rekonesans badawczy
Changes in the Structure of Employment in Toruń in the Years 1884–1908 According to Address Books: A Reconnaissance Survey
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The article raises the issue of the structure of employment in Toruń (Thorn) at the turn of the twentieth century. The address books used for the analysis came from 1884 and 1908. The occupations were classified under major HISCO groups. It is an international method which enables making comparisons with the results obtained by other researchers. The aim of the text, which is to constitute a basis for more in-depth sociotopographic studies, is to present the structure of employment of heads of households in Toruń in 1884 and 1908, and to analyse the changes taking place therein. The analysis does not refer only to the changes occurring between the major HISCO groups, but also within them, as well as among people who were not employed. The above-mentioned issues provide the context for presenting the dynamic economic, social and spatial development of the city from the mid-nineteenth century until the outbreak of the First World War. They also allowed to demonstrate the expansion of the workers’ district of the city, the creation of a new district for municipal and military officials and the development of the suburbs. The important factors that influenced the development of the city included the creation of new industrial plants, the expansion of fortifications and the inclusion of Toruń in the railroad network. All this influenced the changes in the structure of employment of heads of households between 1884 and 1908. Some of the most significant changes included: a significant increase in employment among women and suburban residents; the formation of a new social group – the factory workers; and an increase in the number of people employed as domestic workers and in the service sector.
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