2015 | 27 |
Article title

Etnografia jako zaniedbana metoda w lingwistyce indukcyjnej

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Finding a productive scientific perspective on the relation between grammar and culture can be difficult, as is shown by the decades old debate on the so called “Sapir-Whorf hypothesis”. It is proposed that linguistic research should make more systematic use of ethnography as a source of meanings entrenched in grammar. The cases presented illustrate how grammatical constructions are defined by cultural schemas, scenarios, and models; how non-linguistic (colinguistic) data resolve old problems in grammatical analysis. A potentially controversial claim is put forward that data on an archaic way of life provide clues to the nature of proto grammar. The cases examined include (1) a study of the global relations between language and culture implied by code-switching, (2) a fine-grained analysis of a semantic network that defines a compound affix, (3) the use of native language definitions to define a cultural model of sequences of thinking, feeling, and acting, (4) the use of previously published ethnographies to discover correspondences of cultural models to classes in classifier systems, and (5) the culture of a species of archaic human known to us only through archaeology and paleontology and the possible influences of this culture on the structure of proto grammar.
Autor wychodzi od stwierdzenia, że wypracowanie skutecznego podejścia do badania relacji między gramatyką a kulturą może być trudne, o czym świadczą dziesięciolecia dyskusji nad tzw. „hipotezą Sapira–Whorfa”. Stawia tezę, iż badania językoznawcze powinny w sposób bardziej metodyczny korzystać z etnografii jako źródła znaczeń zawartych w gramatyce.Przedstawia przykłady tego, jak konstrukcje gramatyczne kształtowane są przez kulturowe schematy, scenariusze i modele; pokazuje, w jaki sposób uwzględnienie danych pozajęzykowych (przyjęzykowych) rozwiązuje stare problemy analizy gramatycznej; proponuje być może kontrowersyjny pogląd, iż dane dotyczące sposobu życia u przodków homo sapiens dostarczają wskazówek co do natury protogramatyki. Omawiane przypadki obejmują: (1) relacje między językiem i kulturą w sytuacjach code-switching; (2) szczegółową analizę sieci semantycznej wiązanej ze złożonym formantem; (3) definiowanie modelu kulturowego obejmującego sekwencje myślenia, czucia i działania; (4) wykorzystanie wcześniej publikowanych opisów etnograficznych do odkrywania odpowiedniości między modelami kulturowymi a kategoriami w systemie klasyfikatorów nominalnych; (5) kulturę jednego z prehistorycznych gatunków człowieka znana nam wyłącznie z odkryć archeologicznych i paleontologicznych oraz jej możliwy wpływ na protogramatykę języka.
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