PL EN


2018 | 31 | 1 |
Article title

Stany świadomości w świetle neuronauk

Content
Title variants
Languages of publication
PL
Abstracts
PL
Mózg ludzki może być rozumiany jako kompleksowa sieć, która na poziomie anatomicznym i funkcjonalnym ma strukturę „małych światów” (optymalna organizacja sieciowa aktywacji różnych elementów struktury mózgowej, która jest powiązana z wysoką szybkością propagacji informacji, niską podatnością na błędy i ataki oraz minimalizacją kosztów aktywacji neurofizjologicznej), ważną rolę odgrywa w niej sieć wzbudzeń podstawowych (jej aktywacja jest utrzymana we wszystkich stanach świadomości). Odchylenia od struktury małych światów znajdują odzwierciedlenie w istotnych zmianach poziomu świadomości, takich jak: 1) stan śpiączki: podwyższona aktywacja przedklinka i tylnej części zakrętu obręczy oraz dominacja aktywacji fal alfa nad delta i theta przy relatywnie niskim ich nasileniu, 2) stan wegetatywny: podwyższona koherencja sieci wzbudzeń podstawowych oraz podwyższone nasilenie aktywacji delta, theta, beta i niskich alfa, 3) stan minimalnej świadomości: spadki aktywacji sieci wzbudzeń podstawowych podczas wykonywania zadań oraz przewaga aktywacji fal alfa nad delta i theta przy relatywnie wysokim ich nasileniu, 4) stan medytacyjny: reorganizacja centralnych elementów sieciowych względem peryferyjnych, istotne zmiany w zakresie ilości, jakości, orientacji połączeń odległych podłużnych i poprzecznych oraz częstotliwości ich aktywacji, wzrost podłużnej integracji i hemisferycznej synchronizacji. Potrzebne są dalsze badania, szczególnie oparte o wyrafinowane narzędzia i metody badawcze, które mogą się istotnie przyczynić do poprawy trafności oraz efektywności diagnostycznej, terapeutycznej i prognostycznej.
EN
The human brain can be modelled as a complex network, and may have a small-world structure both at the level of anatomical as well as functional connectivity (optimal organization of different brain network associated with rapid information propagation, minimal wiring costs, as well as a balance between local processing and global integration) in which activity of Default Mode Network play important role in different states of consciousness. The small-world structure deviation reflects genuine changes in levels of consciousness: 1) coma state: increased activity of precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex and domination alpha band over theta and delta band connected with low activity of alpha, theta, and delta band, 2) vegetative state: increased connectivity in Default Mode Network and increased power in delta, theta, beta, and low alpha band, 3) state of minimal consciousness: decreased activation of the Default Mode Network during tasks, domination alpha band over theta and delta band connected with high activity of alpha, theta, and delta band, 4) meditation state: reorganization of central and peripheral elements of the brain network, changes in quantity, quality, orientation of longitudinal (antero-posterior) and transverse (right-left) edges, and its frequency of activity, increased longitudinal integration and hemispherical synchronization. Future neuroimaging investigations are needed. Especially the new sophisticated spectral metrics could be potentially effective in clinical setting and have diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic relevance.
Year
Volume
31
Issue
1
Physical description
Dates
published
2018
online
2018-07-05
Contributors
References
  • Achard S., Delon-Martin C., Vértes P.E., Renard F., Schenck M., Schneider F., Heinrich C., Kremer S., Bullmore E.T. (2012), Hubs of brain functional networks are radically reorganized in comatose patients, “Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences”, Vol. 109(50).
  • Almeida L. de, Idiart M., Lisman J.E. (2009), A second function of gamma frequency oscillations: An E%-max winner-take-all mechanism selects which cells fire, “Journal of Neuroscience”, Vol. 29(23), DOI: https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6044-08.2009.
  • Babiloni C., Vecchio F., Miriello M., Romani G.L., Rossini P.M. (2006), Visuo-spatial consciousness and parieto-occipital areas: A high-resolution EEG study, “Cerebral Cortex”, No. 16.
  • Bagchi B.K., Wenger M.A. (1957), Electrophysiological correlates of some yogi exercises, “Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology”, No. 7.
  • Bagchi B.K., Wenger M.A. (1958), Simultaneous EEG and other recordings during some yogic practices, “Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology”, No. 10.
  • Bartolomei F., Bettus G., Stam C.J., Guye M. (2013), Interictal network properties in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: A graph theoretical study from intracerebral recordings, “Clinical Neurophysiology”, No. 124.
  • Bartolomei F., Bosma I., Klein M., Baayen J.C., Reijneveld J.C., Postma T.J., Heimans J.J., Dijk B.W. van, Munck J.C. de, Jongh A. de, Cover K.S., Stam C.J. (2006), Disturbed functional connectivity in brain tumour patients: evaluation by graph analysis of synchronization matrices, “Clinical Neurophysiology”, No. 117.
  • Berkovich-Ohana A., Glicksohn J., Goldstein A. (2012), Mindfulness-induced changes in gamma band activity – implications for the default mode network, self-reference and attention, “Clinical Neurophysiology”, No. 123.
  • Bohr I.J., Kenny E., Blamire A., O’Brien J.T., Thomas A.J., Richardson J., Kaiser M. (2013), Resting-state functional connectivity in late-life depression: Higher global connectivity and more long distance connections, “Frontiers in Psychiatry”, Vol. 3(116), DOI: · https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2012.00116.
  • Boly M., Phillips C., Tshibanda L., Vanhaudenhuyse A., Schabus M., Dang-Vu T.T., Moonen G., Hustinx R., Maquet P., Laureys S. (2008), Intrinsic brain activity in altered states of consciousness: How conscious is the default mode of brain function?, “Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences”, No. 1129, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1417.015.
  • Buckner R.L., Andrews-Hanna J.R., Schacter D.L. (2008), The brain’s default network: Anatomy, function, and relevance to disease, “Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences”, No. 1124, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1440.011.
  • Cahn B.R., Polich J. (2006), Meditation states and traits: EEG, ERP, and neuroimaging, “Psychological Bulletin”, Vol. 132(2), DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.132.2.180.
  • Cavanna A.E. (2007), The precuneus and consciousness, “CNS Spectrums”, No. 12.
  • Cavanna A.E., Trimble M.R. (2006), The precuneus: A review of its functional anatomy and behavioural correlates, “Brain”, Vol. 129(3), DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awl004.
  • Chakravarthi R., VanRullen R. (2012), Conscious updating is a rhythmic process, “Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences”, Vol. 109(26), DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1121622109.
  • Chennu S., Finoia P., Kamau E., Allanson J., Williams G.B., Monti M.M., Noreika V., Arnatkeviciute A. (2014), Spectral Signatures of Reorganized Brain Networks in Disorders of Consciousness, “PloSOne”, Vol. 10(10).
  • Crone J., Ladurner G., Höller Y., Golaszewski S., Trinka E., Kronbichler M. (2011), Deactivation of the default mode network as a marker of impaired consciousness: An fMRI study, “PloSOne”, Vol. 6(10), DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026373.
  • Davidson R.J. (1976), The physiology of meditation and other states of consciousness, “Perspectives in Biology and Medicine”, No. 19.
  • Davidson R.J. (2010), Empirical Explorations of Mindfulness: Conceptual and Methodological Conundrums, “Emotions”, Vol. 10(1).
  • Davidson R.J., Kabat-Zinn J., Schumacher J., Rosenkranz M., Muller D., Santorelli S.F. (2003), Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation, “Psychosomatic Medicine”, No. 65.
  • Dehaene S. (2014), Consciousness and the brain: Deciphering how the brain codes our thoughts, New York: Penguin Publishing Group.
  • Fingelkurts A.A., Fingelkurts A.A., Bagnato S., Boccagni C., Galardi G. (2012), EEG oscillatory states as neurophenomenology of consciousness as revealed from patients in vegetative and minimally conscious states, “Conscience and Cognition”, No. 21.
  • Fingelkurts A.A., Fingelkurts A.A., Bagnato S., Boccagni C., Galardi G. (2013), The value of spontaneous EEG oscillations in distinguishing patients in vegetative and minimally conscious states, “Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology”, No. 62.
  • Fox M.D., Raichle M.E. (2007), Spontaneous fluctuations in brain activity observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging, “Nature Reviews Neuroscience”, No. 8.
  • Fronczak A., Fronczak P. (2009), Świat sieci złożonych: Od fizyki do Internetu, Warszawa: Wydawnictwo naukowe PWN.
  • Greicius M.D., Krasnow B., Reiss A.L., Menon V. (2003), Functional connectivity in the resting brain: A network analysis of the default mode hypothesis, “Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA”, No. 100, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0135058100.
  • Greicius M.D., Menon V. (2004), Default-mode activity during a passive sensory task: Uncoupled from deactivation but impacting activation, “Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience”, No. 16.
  • Greicius M.D., Supekar K., Menon V., Dougherty R.F. (2009), Resting-state functional connectivity reflects structural connectivity in the default mode network, “Cerebral Cortex”, No. 19.
  • Hauswald A., Übelacker T., Leske S., Weisz N. (2015), What it means to be Zen: Marked modulations of local and interareal 2 synchronization during open monitoring meditation, “NeuroImage”, No. 108, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.12.065.
  • Jao T., Li C.W., Vértes P.E., Wu C.W., Achard S., Hsieh C.H., Liou C.H., Chen J.H., Bullmore E.T. (2016), Large-scale functional brain network reorganization during Taoist meditation, “Brain Connectivity”, Vol. 6(1), DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/brain.2014.0318.
  • King J.R., Sitt J.D., Faugeras F., Rohaut B., El Karoui I., Cohen L., Naccache L., Dehaene S. (2013), Information sharing in the brain indexes consciousness in noncommunicative patients, “Current Biology”, Vol. 23(19), DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.07.075.
  • Koubeissi M.Z., Bartolomei F., Beltagy A., Picard F. (2014), Electrical stimulation of a small brain area reversibly disrupts consciousness, “Epilepsy and Behavior”, No. 37.
  • Laureys S., Owen A.M., Schiff N.D. (2004), Brain function in coma, vegetative state, and related disorders, “Lancet Neurology”, Vol. 3(9), DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(04)00852-X.
  • Liu Y., Liang M., Zhou Y., He Y., Hao Y. (2008), Disrupted small-world networks in schizophrenia, “Brain”, No. 131.
  • Luccioli S., Ben-Jacob E., Barzilai A., Bonifazi P., Torcini A. (2014), Clique of functional hubs orchestrates population bursts in developmentally regulated neural networks, “PLoS Computational Biology”, Vol. 10(9), DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003823.
  • Lutz A., Greischer L.L., Rawlings N.B., Ricard M., Davidson R.J. (2004), Long-term meditators self-induce high amplitude gamma synchrony during mental practice, “Proceedings of the National Academy of Science”, No. 101, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0407401101.
  • Mason M.F., Norton M.I., Van Horn J.D., Wegner D.M., Grafton S.T., Macrae C.N. (2007), Wandering minds: The default network and stimulus-independent thought, “Science”, No. 315, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1131295.
  • Miconi T., VanRullen R. (2010), The gamma slideshow: Object-based perceptual cycles in a model of the visual cortex, “Frontiers in Human Neuroscience”, Vol. 4(205), DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2010.00205.
  • Munzert J., Lorey B., Zentgraf K. (2009), Cognitive motor processes: The role of motor imagery in the study of motor representations, “Brain Resources Review”, No. 60.
  • Pąchalska M. (2007), Neuropsychologia kliniczna. Urazy mózgu, Warszawa: PWN.
  • Pąchalska M., Kaczmarek B., Kropotov J.D. (2014), Neuropsychologia kliniczna: od teorii do praktyki, Warszawa: PWN.
  • Pąchalska M., Kaczmarek B., Kropotov J.D. (2018), Neuropsychologia tożsamości: Ja utracone i odzyskane, Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
  • Raichle M.E. (2010), Ciemna strona mózgu, „Świat Nauki”, nr 4(224).
  • Raichle M.E., Mintun M.A. (2006), Brain work and brain imaging, “Annual Review of Neuroscience”, No. 29.
  • Rubinov M., Sporns O. (2010), Complex network measures of brain connectivity: Uses and interpretations, “NeuroImage”, No. 52.
  • Schiff N.D., Ribary U., Moreno D.R., Beattie B., Kronberg E. (2002), Residual cerebral activity and behavioural fragments can remain in the persistently vegetative brain, “Brain”, No. 125, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awf131.
  • Schnakers C., Vanhaudenhuyse A., Giacino J., Ventura M., Boly M., Majerus S., Moonen G., Laureys S. (2009), Diagnostic accuracy of the vegetative and minimally conscious state: Clinical consensus versus standardized neurobehavioral assessment, “BMC Neurology”, No. 9.
  • Seth A.K., Edelman G.M. (2010), Consciousness and complexity, [w:] B. Meyer (ed.), Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science, Vol. 2, Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
  • Shulman G.L., Fiez J.A., Corbetta M., Buckner R.L., Miezin F.M. (1997), Common blood flow changes across visual tasks: II. Decreases in cerebral cortex, “Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience”, No. 9.
  • Siegel D.J. (2007), The Mindful Brain: Reflection and Attunement in the Cultivation of Wellbeing, New York: Norton.
  • Siegel D.J. (2010), Mindsight: The new science of personal transformation, New York: Bantam.
  • Slagter H.A., Davidson R.J., Lutz A. (2011), Mental training as a tool in the neuroscientific study of brain and cognitive plasticity, “Frontiers in Human Neuroscience”, Vol. 5(17), DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2011.00017.
  • Slagter H.A., Lutz A., Greischar L.L., Nieuwenhuis S., Davidson R.J. (2009), Theta phase synchrony and conscious target perception: Impact of intensive mental training, “Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience”, Vol. 21(8), DOI: https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn.2009.21125.
  • Stam C.J. (2006), Nonlinear Brain Dynamics, New York: Nova Science Publishers.
  • Stam C.J., Haan W. de, Daffertshofer A., Jones B.F., Manshanden I. (2009), Graph theoretical analysis of magnetoencephalographic functional connectivity in Alzheimer’s disease, “Brain”, No. 132.
  • Stam C.J., Reijneveld J.C. (2007), Graph theoretical analysis of complex networks in the brain, “Nonlinear Biomedical Physics”, Vol. 1:3, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1753-4631-1-3.
  • Tarapata Z. (2012), Czy sieci rządzą światem? Od Eulera do Barabasiego, „Biuletyn Instytutu Systemów Informatycznych”, nr 10.
  • Vanhaudenhuyse A., Noirhomme Q., Tshibanda L.J., Bruno M.A., Boveroux P. (2010), Default network connectivity reflects the level of consciousness in non-communicative brain-damaged patients, “Brain”, No. 133, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awp313.
  • VanRullen R. (2009), Binding hardwired vs. on-demand feature conjunctions, “Visual Cognition”, Vol. 17(1–2).
  • VanRullen R. (2013), Visual attention: a rhythmic process?, “Current Biology”, Vol. 23(24), DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.11.006.
  • Vincent J.L., Patel G.H., Fox M.D., Snyder A.Z., Baker J.T., Van Essen D.C. (2007), Intrinsic functional architecture in the anaesthetized monkey brain, “Nature”, No. 447.
  • Xue S., Tang Y.Y., Tang R., Posner M.I. (2014), Short-term meditation induces changes in brain resting EEG theta networks, “Brain and Cognition”, No. 87.
  • Zeng L.L., Shen H., Liu L., Wang L., Li B., Fang P., Zhou Z., Li Y., Hu D. (2012), Identifying major depression using whole-brain functional connectivity: A multivariate pattern analysis, “Brain”, No. 135, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/aws059.
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.ojs-doi-10_17951_j_2018_31_1_75-95
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.