PL EN


2018 | 31 | 3 |
Article title

Prokrastynacja i prokrastynatorzy. Definicja, etiologia, epidemiologia i terapia

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Abstracts
PL
Problem nieterminowego wywiązywania się z różnych zobowiązań stał się tak powszechny, że zajęli się nim psychologowie. Badacze analizujący to zjawisko nadali mu nazwę prokrastynacja (łac. prōcrāstinō – ‘odkładanie do jutra, z dnia na dzień’). Problemem nie są sytuacje, kiedy z powodu zmęczenia, zniechęcenia, przepracowania, potrzeby uzupełnienia informacji lub po prostu zwykłego lenistwa sporadycznie coś zaniedbujemy, nie wywiązując się we właściwym terminie ze zobowiązania. Prokrastynatorzy to osoby, które zwlekają w sposób chroniczny, z powodów irracjonalnych, często wyszukując sobie zastępcze zajęcia, aby w ten sposób usprawiedliwić niemożność przystąpienia do właściwego zadania. Powodem takich zachowań jest m.in. lęk przed niepowodzeniem, niskie poczucie własnej wartości. Osoby takie na ogół planują wykonanie zadania, lecz im bardziej zbliża się termin przystąpienia do jego realizacji lub zakończenia, tym silniej odczuwają awersję. W Europie Zachodniej oraz w USA psychologowie dostrzegają potrzebę objęcia takich osób różnymi formami terapii. Niestety, w Polsce, chociaż zjawisko jest równie powszechne, problem nie jest wystarczająco nagłośniony, brak jest statystyk, które wyjaśniałyby, jak dużej populacji on dotyczy, a praktyka nieterminowego realizowania różnych zobowiązań wydaje się mieć bardzo szerokie granice tolerancji. Artykuł opiera się na przeglądzie literatury i stanowi próbę opisania zarówno samego zjawiska, jego następstw, jak i stosowanych form pomocowych.
EN
A tendency to delay tasks has become so common that it created an interest of psychologists. Such behavior was termed as procrastination (Latin prōcrāstinō – putting off for tomorrow, from day to day). It does not concern situations when we occasionally do not accomplish a given task or fail to meet the deadline due to fatigue, discouragement, overwork, a need to complete the information or simply because we feel lazy and unmotivated. Procrastinators linger chronically for irrational reasons finding substitute assignments to excuse the inability to fulfill the right task. The reason for doing it is a fear of failure and low self-esteem. As a rule, such persons plan to accomplish the task, but their feeling of aversion to do it increases when the deadline is growing uncomfortably near. They simply cannot make themselves to do the work. In many West European countries and in the USA the need for psychological treatment of procrastinators is understood. Unfortunately, procrastination is not considered to be a real problem in Poland despite the fact that it is quite common. In addition, none statistical studies are carried on, and there are wide tolerance limits for untimely settlement of obligations. The present paper aims at describing the nature and after-effects of procrastination as well as appropriate aid actions.
Year
Volume
31
Issue
3
Physical description
Dates
published
2018
online
2019-02-26
Contributors
References
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bwmeta1.element.ojs-doi-10_17951_j_2018_31_3_195-213
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