PL EN


2018 | 31 | 4 |
Article title

Twarze i ich percepcja – kilka słów o tym, jak przetwarzamy ekspresję emocjonalną ludzkich twarzy, z uwzględnieniem roli wybranych cech osobowości w tym procesie

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Abstracts
PL
Twarze są bardzo ważnym bodźcem o znaczeniu adaptacyjnym, który ułatwia człowiekowi funkcjonowanie w społeczeństwie dzięki przekazywaniu wielu przydatnych informacji. Twarze przekazują informacje na temat tożsamości napotkanych osób, ich płci, rasy, stanu emocjonalnego, zainteresowań i atrakcyjności. Informacje te są odczytywane i interpretowane przez ludzi. Należy podkreślić, że tematyka percepcji twarzy była – w porównaniu do innych zagadnień związanych z poznaniem, takich jak pamięć, język czy uwaga – przez psychologów poznawczych badana niechętnie, a opisy percepcji twarzy we wczesnych podręcznikach psychologii poznawczej są nadzwyczaj skromne. Obszar związany z badaniami ekspresji mimicznej został o wiele lepiej opisany i rozpropagowany, głównie dzięki serii badań przeprowadzonych przez P. Ekmana i jego współpracowników. Badacze dysponują wiedzą na temat związków pomiędzy cechami osobowości a ekspresjami emocjonalnymi ludzkich twarzy. Wielu naukowców także uważa, że niemożliwe jest zrozumienie procesów ekspresji emocjonalnej bez wzięcia pod uwagę różnic indywidualnych. W niniejszym artykule przedstawiono teorie i badania dotyczące pamięci i percepcji twarzy.
EN
The human face is unique among social stimuli in conveying such a variety of different characteristics. A person’s identity, sex, race, age, emotional state, the focus of attention and attractiveness can be all detected and interpreted from the face. Unfortunately, in contrast to other areas of psychological studies, such as memory, language, and attention, the study of face perception was a minority interest during the early years of cognitive psychology, and the topic received little or no attention in early cognitive psychology textbooks. The study of facial expression was much more fortunate, mainly thanks to a well-known series of studies of P. Ekman and his colleagues. Researchers have been aware for some time of the relationships between individual differences in personality and facial expression perception. A lot of researchers believe that the understanding of how facial expressions are processed is incomplete without taking account of personality-related individual differences. In this article, firstly, a review research addressing the field of face memory and face perception will be presented. Secondly, a discussion of the findings demonstrating the current state of knowledge of facial expression will be shown, including the relationship between personality traits and facial expression perception.
Year
Volume
31
Issue
4
Physical description
Dates
published
2018
online
2019-04-26
Contributors
References
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