PL EN


2020 | 33 | 2 |
Article title

Jacy ludzie mogą liczyć na wsparcie? Ciemna triada i konwersacyjna niebezpośredniość jako predyktory wsparcia społecznego

Content
Title variants
Languages of publication
PL
Abstracts
PL
W przedstawionym badaniu wzięło udział 118 osób – 48 mężczyzn i 70 kobiet, w wieku między 18. a 65. rokiem życia (M = 24,70; SD = 10,90). Rekrutacji osób badanych dokonano za pomocą metody kuli śnieżnej drogą internetową. Głównym celem badania była eksploracja potencjalnych predyktorów wsparcia społecznego – ciemnej triady, czyli konstruktu, na który składają się trzy cechy uznawane za niepożądane: psychopatia, makiawelizm i narcyzm, a także stylu konwersacyjnej niebezpośredniości, czyli skłonności zarówno do generowania wypowiedzi, w których ukryte są jakieś treści, jak i do doszukiwania się niejawnych komunikatów w wypowiedziach innych. Dodatkowo sprawdzono, czy między zmiennymi wyjaśniającymi zachodzi interakcja. Poddane dyskusji wyniki częściowo potwierdzają dwie hipotezy mówiące o związku między ciemną triadą i konwersacyjną niebezpośredniością a wsparciem społecznym. Okazało się, że analizy statystyczne częściowo potwierdziły dwa z przewidywanych wniosków. Istotne okazały się związki między makiawelizmem i psychopatią a wsparciem społecznym oraz między podskalą konwersacyjnej niebezpośredniości (generowaniem) a wsparciem społecznym. Nie udało się potwierdzić przewidywanej interakcji między zmiennymi niezależnymi.
EN
Presented study was conducted on 118 people – 48 men and 70 women, aged between 18 and 65 (M = 24.70; SD = 10.90). The recruitment of the subjects was done online. Snowball method of selection was used. The main goal of the study was to explore potential predictors of social support – the Dark Triad, a construct that consists of three features considered as undesirable: psychopathy, Machiavellianism and narcissism, as well as a conversational style of indirectness, a tendency to both generate statements in which content is hidden, and to look for concealed messages in the statements of others. In addition, it was checked if there was an interaction between the explanatory variables. The discussed results partly confirm two hypotheses about the relationship of social support with the Dark Triad and conversational indirectness. It turned out that statistical analyzes partly confirmed two of the expected conclusions. Relations between Machiavellianism and psychopathy and social support, as well as between the subscale of conversational indirectness (generation) and social support proved to be significant. The expected interaction between the independent variables did not occur.
Year
Volume
33
Issue
2
Physical description
Dates
published
2020
online
2020-06-29
Contributors
References
  • Adamska, K., Konarski, R. (2014). Polska adaptacja Skali stylu konwersacyjnej niebezpośredniości Thomasa Holtgravesa. Psychologia Społeczna, 9(3), 348–361. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7366/1896180020143007
  • Ali, F., Amorim, I.S., Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2009). Empathy deficits and trait emotional intelligence in psychopathy and Machiavellianism. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(7), 758–762. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2009.06.016
  • APA (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Washington.
  • Austin, E.J., Farrelly, D., Black, C., Moore, H. (2007). Emotional intelligence, Machiavellianism and emotional manipulation: Does EI have a dark side? Personality and Individual Differences, 43(1), 179–189. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2006.11.019
  • Baird, S.A. (2002). The links between primary and secondary psychopathy and social adaptation. Colgate University Journal of the Sciences, 34, 61–82.
  • Barrera, M., Ainlay, S.L. (1983). The structure of social support: A conceptual and empirical analysis. Journal of Community Psychology, 11(2). 133–143. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1520-6629(198304)11:2<133::AID-JCOP2290110207>3.0.CO;2-L
  • Bokuniewicz, S. (2015). Funkcjonowanie w środowisku społecznym osób wykazujących cechy psychopatyczne. Analiza teoretyczna. Ogrody Nauk i Sztuk, (5), 173–182. DOI: 10.15503/onis2015.173.182
  • Bost, K.K., Vaughn, B.E., Washington, W.N., Cielinski, K.L., Bradbard, M.R. (1998). Social competence, social support, and attachment: Demarcation of construct domains, measurement, and paths of influence for preschool children attending Head Start. Child Development, 69(1), 192–218. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1132080
  • Buffardi, L.E., Campbell, W.K. (2008). Narcissism and social networking web sites. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(10), 1303–1314. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167208320061
  • Carre, J.R., Jones, D.N. (2016). The impact of social support and coercion salience on Dark Triad decision making. Personality and Individual Differences, 94, 92–95. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.01.006
  • Chabrol, H., Melioli, T., Van Leeuwen, N., Rodgers, R., Goutaudier, N. (2015). The Dark Tetrad: Identifying personality profiles in high-school students. Personality and Individual Differences, 83, 97–101. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.03.051
  • Christie, R., Geis, F.L. (2013). Studies in Machiavellianism. New York: Academic Press.
  • Cobb, S. (1976). Social support as a moderator of life stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 38(5), 300–314. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006842-197609000-00003
  • Cohen, S., Wills, T.A. (1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98(2), 310–357. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.98.2.310
  • Cornell, D.G., Warren, J., Hawk, G., Stafford, E., Oram, G., Pine, D. (1996). Psychopathy in instrumental and reactive violent offenders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(4), 783–790. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.64.4.783
  • Czarna, A.Z., Jonason, P.K., Dufner, M., Kossowska, M. (2016). The Dirty Dozen Scale: Validation of a Polish Version and Extension of the Nomological Net. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 445. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00445
  • Daly, J.A., Vangelisti, A.L., Daughton, S.M. (1987). The nature and correlates of conversational sensitivity. Human Communication Research, 14(2), 167–202. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.64.4.783
  • De Witt, N.W. (1954). Epicurus and His Philosophy. London: Oxford University Press.
  • Derbis, R., Filipkowski, J. (2018). Motywacja osiągnięć, ciemna triada i zaangażowanie w pracę jako korelaty zachowań kontrproduktywnych. Czasopismo Psychologiczne, 24(3), 627–639. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14691/CPPJ.24.3.627
  • Egan, V., Chan, S., Shorter, G.W. (2014). The Dark Triad, happiness and subjective well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 67, 17–22. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-018-9834-6
  • Elias, M.J., Haynes, N.M. (2008). Social competence, social support, and academic achievement in minority, low-income, urban elementary school children. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 474–495. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1045-3830.23.4.474
  • Eysenck, H.J., Eysenck, S.G.B. (1965). The Eysenck Personality Inventory. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 14(1), 140. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3119050
  • Funch, D.P., Marshall, J. (1983). The role of stress, social support and age in survival from breast cancer. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 27(1), 77–83. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-3999(83)90112-5
  • George, D., Mallery, P. (2003). SPSS for Windows step by step: Answers to selected exercises. A Simple Guide and Reference. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 63, 1461–1470.
  • Gerymski, R. (2018). Wsparcie i radzenie sobie ze stresem jako moderatory związku stresu i jakości życia osób transpłciowych. Czasopismo Psychologiczne, 24(3), 607–616. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14691/CPPJ.24.3.607
  • Hare, R.D. (1985). Comparison of procedures for the assessment of psychopathy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53(1), 7–16. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.53.1.7
  • Hare, R.D. (2008). Psychopaci są wśród nas. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Znak.
  • Hare, R.D., Black, P.J., Walsh, Z. (2013). The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised: Forensic Applications and Limitations. W: R.P. Archer, E.M.A. Wheeler (eds.), Forensic Uses of Clinical Assessment Instruments (s. 230–265). London: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Hauser, M.D., Chomsky, N., Fitch, W.T. (2002). The faculty of language: What is it, who has it, and how did it evolve? Science, 298(5598), 1569–1579. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.298.5598.1569
  • Holtgraves, T. (1997). Styles of language use: Individual and cultural variability in conversational indirectness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(3), 624. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.73.3.624
  • Jakobwitz, S., Egan, V. (2006). The dark triad and normal personality traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 40(2), 331–339. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2005.07.006
  • Jonason, P.K., Webster, G.D. (2010). The dirty dozen: A concise measure of the dark triad. Psychological Assessment, 22(2), 420–432. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0019265
  • Jonason, P.K., Slomski, S., Partyka, J. (2012). The Dark Triad at work: How toxic employees get their way. Personality and Individual Differences, 52(3), 449–453. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2011.11.008
  • Jonason, P.K., Lyons, M., Bethell, E.J., Ross, R. (2013). Different routes to limited empathy in the sexes: Examining the links between the Dark Triad and empathy. Personality and Individual Differences, 54(5), 572–576. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2012.11.009
  • Jonason, P.K., Baughman, H.M., Carter, G.L., Parker, P. (2015). Dorian Gray without his portrait: Psychological, social, and physical health costs associated with the Dark Triad. Personality and Individual Differences, 78, 5–13. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.01.008
  • Jones, D.N., Paulhus, D.L. (2014). Introducing the short dark triad (SD3) a brief measure of dark personality traits. Assessment, 21(1), 28–41. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191113514105
  • Justice, A. (2016). The Relationship of Empathy and Impulsivity to the Dark Tetrad of Personality. Abilene: Abilene Christian University.
  • Kim, S.N., Lee, S.B. (2013). Spiritual well-being, social support, life satisfaction and depression in the community dwelling elderly. Journal of East-West Nursing Research, 19(2), 186–194. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14370/jewnr.2013.19.2.186
  • Kurcz, I. (2002). Język i komunikacja. W: J. Strelau (red.), Psychologia. Podręcznik akademicki (s. 231–233). Gdańsk: GWP.
  • Lilienfeld, S.O., Andrews, B.P. (1996). Development and preliminary validation of a self-report measure of psychopathic personality traits in noncriminal population. Journal of Personality Assessment, 66(3), 488–524. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa6603_3
  • Malecki, C.K., Demaray, M.K. (2002). Measuring perceived social support: Development of the child and adolescent social support scale (CASSS). Psychology in the Schools, 39(1), 1–18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.10004
  • McCrae, R.R., Costa, P.T. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(1), 81–90. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.52.1.81
  • Muangman, P., Sullivan, S.R., Wiechman, S., Bauer, G., Honari, S., Heimbach, D.M., Gibran, N.S. (2005). Social support correlates with survival in patients with massive burn injury. Journal of Burn Care & Rehabilitation, 26(4), 352–356. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/01.BCR.0000169894.37249.4D
  • Ober, J. (2013). Funkcja i rola efektywnej komunikacji w zarządzaniu. Zeszyty Naukowe. Organizacja i Zarządzanie / Politechnika Śląska, 65, 257–266.
  • Paal, T., Bereczkei, T. (2007). Adult theory of mind, cooperation, Machiavellianism: The effect of mindreading on social relations. Personality and Individual Differences, 43(3), 541–551. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10059-008-0017-4
  • Parandowski, J. (1992). Mitologia. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Puls.
  • Paulhus, D.L., Williams, K.M. (2002). The dark triad of personality: Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. Journal of Research in Personality, 36(6), 556–563. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-6566(02)00505-6
  • Penney, L.M., Spector, P.E. (2002). Narcissism and counterproductive work behavior: Do bigger egos mean bigger problems? International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 10(1–2), 126–134. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.burn.2015.12.001
  • Pilch, I. (2014). Makiawelizm, narcyzm, psychopatia: ciemna triada jako próba opisania osobowości eksploatatora. Chowanna, 43(2), 165–181.
  • Pilch, I., Sanecka, E., Hyla, M., Atłas, K. (2015). Polska adaptacja skali TriPM do badania psychopatii w ujęciu triarchicznym. Psychologia Społeczna, 10, 435–454. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7366/1896180020153506
  • Pistrang, N., Barker, C., Rutter, C. (1997). Social support as conversation: Analysing breast cancer patients’ interactions with their partners. Social Science & Medicine, 45(5), 773–782. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(96)00413-3
  • Preacher, K.J., Hayes, A.F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 879−891. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BRM.40.3.879
  • Raskin, R.N., Hall, C.S. (1979). A narcissistic personality inventory. Psychological Reports, 45(2), 590–590. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1979.45.2.590
  • Rauthmann, J.F. (2012). The Dark Triad and interpersonal perception: Similarities and differences in the social consequences of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3(4), 487–496. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550611427608
  • Reblin, M., Uchino, B.N. (2008). Social and emotional support and its implication for health. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 21(2), 201–205. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/YCO.0b013e3282f3ad89
  • Russell, D.W., Altmaier, E., Van Velzen, D. (1987). Job-related stress, social support, and burnout among classroom teachers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72(2), 269–274. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.72.2.269
  • Sęk, H. (2003). Wsparcie społeczne jako kategoria zasobów i wieloznaczne funkcje wsparcia. W: Z. Juczyński, N. Ogińska-Bulik (red.), Zasoby osobiste i społeczne sprzyjające zdrowiu jednostki (s. 17–32). Łódź: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego.
  • Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8(2), 23–74.
  • Tannen, D. (1981). Indirectness in discourse: Ethnicity as conversational style. Discourse Processes, 4(3), 221–238.
  • Tsuda, S. (1993). Indirectness in Discourse: What Does it Do in Conversation? Intercultural Communication Studies, 3(1), 63–74.
  • Vandenberg, R.J. (2006). Introduction: statistical and methodological myths and urban legends: Where, pray tell, did they get this idea? Organizational Research Methods, 9(2), 194–201. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428105285506
  • Wai, M., Tiliopoulos, N. (2012). The affective and cognitive empathic nature of the dark triad of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 52(7), 794–799. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2012.01.008
  • Zarzycka, D., Śpila, B., Wrońska, I., Makara-Studzińska, M. (2010). Analiza walidacyjna wybranych aspektów Skali Oceny Wsparcia Społecznego. Psychiatria, 7(3), 83–94.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.ojs-doi-10_17951_j_2020_33_2_253-269
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.