PL EN


2015 | 22 | 1 |
Article title

Social movements and political outcomes: why both ends fail to meet

Content
Title variants
Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
EN
The relationships between social movement challenges and political outcomes remain strongly underresearched in the field of social movements. Here, we use the labels “social” and “political” in a broad sense to comprise many types of challenges and many types of outcomes, such as economic and social outcomes for specific movements as well as general policy outcomes. Four theories are crucial for understanding successful mobilization of social movements: relative deprivation, resource mobilization, framing, and the theoretical figure of the opening political opportunity structure. Political outcomes, at least in democratic political systems, are usually the result of a parallelogram of different claims and means of influencing outcomes, in short, of compromises. Here, we list various forms of outcomes, from successful acceptance of movement demands to part-time successes or entire failures, and also the various strategies incumbents have in dealing with social movement challenges. Researchers usually have focused on the individual and structural conditions of the emergence of social movements but less so on the conditions of processing social movement demands and the outcomes for movements themselves, for the electorate and for policy changes. Consequently, there is little research available that would meet the requirements of an adequate research design in view of the numerous factors spelled out here as a theoretical control list. The idea of a response hierarchy of incumbents is suggested as a sort of a dispositional concept for further, more consolidated, research in this area. Also the notion of cycles of various sorts has to be kept in mind in order to avoid misjudging of both, the persistence of social movements over time, and their eventual successes and failures.
Year
Volume
22
Issue
1
Physical description
Dates
published
2015
online
2016-04-18
Contributors
References
  • Alber, J. 1985. Modernisierung, neue Spannungslinien und die politischen Chancen der Grünen, “Politische Vierteljahresschrift” 26, pp. 211–226.
  • Almeida, P. D. 2010. Globalization and Collective Action, [in:] Handbook of politics. State and society in global perspective, K. T. Leicht, J. C. Jenkins (eds.), pp. 305–326.
  • Della Porta, D., Kriesi, H., Rucht, D. (eds.). 2009. Social Movements in a Globalizing World, New York: Macmillan.
  • Easterlin, R. A. 1980. Birth and Fortune. The Impact of Numbers on Personal Welfare, New York: Basic Books.
  • Eisinger, P. 1973. The Conditions of Protest Behavior American Cities, “American Political Science Review”, 67, pp. 11–28.
  • Fuentes, M., Frank, A. G. 1989. Ten Theses on Social Movements, “World Development”, 17, pp. 179–191.
  • Gamson, W. A. 1975. The Strategy of Social Protest. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.
  • Goldstone, J. A. 1980. The Weakness of Organization: A new Look at Gamson’s ‘The Strategy of Social Protest’, “American Journal of Sociology”, 85, pp. 1017–1042.
  • Gurr, T. R. 1980. On the Outcomes of Violent Conflict, [in:] Handbook of Political Conflict, (ed.), T. R. Gurr, New York: Free Press, pp. 238–294.
  • Hirschman, A. O. 1982. Shifting Involvements. Private Interests and Public Action, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Huberts, L. W. 1989. The Influence of Social Movements on Government Policy, [in:] International Social Movement Research. Organizing for Change: Social Movement Organizations in Europe and the United States, (ed.) B. Klandermans, Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, pp. 395–426.
  • Jenkins, J. 1985. The Politics of Insurgency: The Farm Worker Movement in the 1960s, New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Jenkins, J. C. 1983. Resource Mobilization Theory and the Study of Social Movements, “Annual Review of Sociology”, 9, pp. 527–553.
  • Jenkins, J. C., Perrow, Ch. 1977. Insurgency of The Powerless: Farm Workers Movements (1946–1972), “American Sociological Review”, 42, pp. 249–268.
  • Kitschelt, H. P. 1989. The Logics of Party Formation: Ecological Politics in Belgium and West Germany, Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  • Kitschelt, H. P. 1988. Left-Libertarian Parties: Explaining Innovation in Competitive Party Systems, “World Politics”, 40, pp. 194–234.
  • Kitschelt, H. P. 1986. Political Opportunity Structures and Political Protest: Anti-Nuclear Movements in Four Democracies, “British Journal of Political Science”, 16, pp, 57–85.
  • Klandermans, B. (ed.), 1989. International Social Movement Research. Organizing for Change: Social Movement Organizations in Europe and the United States, Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press.
  • Klandermans, B., Kriesi, H., Tarrow, S. (eds.), 1988. International Social Movement Research. From Structure to Action: Comparing Social Movement Research across Cultures, Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press.
  • Kuran, T. 1995. The Inevitability of Revolutionary Surprises, “American Journal of Sociology”, 100 (5), pp. 1528–1551.
  • Leicht, K. T., Jenkins, J. C. (eds.), 2010. Handbook of Politics. State and Society in Global Perspective, New York: Springer.
  • Linz, J. J., Stepan, A. 1996. Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation: Southern Europe, South America, and Post-Communist Europe, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • McAdam, D. 1983. The Decline of the Civil Rights Movement, [in:] Social Movements of the Sixties and Seventies, J. Freeman (ed.), New York: Longman, pp. 298–319.
  • McAdam, D. 1982. The Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • McAdam, D., McCarthy, J. D., Zald, M. N. 1988. Social Movements, [in:] Handbook of Sociology, N. J. Smelser (ed.), Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage, pp. 695–737.
  • McCarthy, J. D., Zald, M. N. 1977. Resource Mobilization and Social Movements: A Partial theory, “American Journal of Sociology”, 82, pp. 1212–41.
  • Meyer, D. S., Verduzco Reyes, D. 2010. Social Movements and Contentious Politics, [in:] Handbook of politics, state, and society in global perspective, K. T. Leicht, J. C. Jenkins (eds.), pp. 217–233.
  • Müller-Rommel, F. 1985. New Social Movements and Smaller Parties: A Comparative Perspective, “West European Politics” 8, pp. 41–54.
  • Oberschall, A. 2010. Conflict Theory, [in:] Handbook of politics, state, and society in global perspective, K. T. Leicht, J. C. Jenkins (eds.), pp. 177–193.
  • Piven, F. F., Richard A., Cloward, R. A., 1977. Poor People’s Movements: Why They Succeed, How They Fail, New York: Pantheon.
  • Ragin, Ch. C. 1987. The Comparative Method. Moving Beyond Qualitative and Quantitative Strategies, Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Rochon, T. 1988. Mobilizing for Peace in Western Europe, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Rucht, D. 2012. Massen mobilisieren, “Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte”, 62, no. 25–26, pp. 3–9.
  • Shadish, W. R., Cook, T. D., Campbell, D. T. 2002. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  • Smith, G. 1987. Party and Protest: The Two Faces of Opposition in Western Europe, [in:] Opposition in Western Europe, Eva Kolinsky (ed.), London: Croom Helm, pp. 52–76.
  • Smith, G. 1976. Party Systems and Social Movements, [in:] Social and Political Movements in Western Europe, M. Kolinsky, W. Paterson (eds.), London: Croom Helm, pp. 331–354.
  • Tarrow, S. 2005. The New Transnational Activism, New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Tarrow, S. 1989. Democracy and Disorder. Protest and Politics in Italy 1965–1975, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Tarrow, S. 1988. National Politics and Collective Action: Recent Theory and Research in Western Europe and the United States, “Annual Review of Sociology”, 14, pp. 421–440.
  • Tarrow, S. 1983. Struggling to Reform: Social Movements and Policy Change during Cycles of Protest, Ithaca: Cornell University, Western Societies Paper, no. 15.
  • Tarrow, S., della Porta, D. (eds.), 2004. Transnational Protest and Global Activism, Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Taylor, V. 1989. Social Movement Continuity: The Women’s Movement in Advance, “American Sociological Review”, 54, pp. 761–775.
  • Tilly, C. 2004. Social Movements, 1768–2004, Boulder, Co.: Paradigm Publishers.
  • Tilly, C. 1978. From Mobilization to Revolution, Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley.
  • Tilly, C. 1975. Revolutions and Collective Violence, [in:] Handbook of Political Science, vol. 3, F. I. Greenstein, N. W. Polsby (eds.), Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, pp. 483–555.
  • Tilly, C., Tarrow, S. 2006. Contentious Politics, Boulder, Co.: Paradigm Publishers.
  • Urdal, H. 2012. A Clash of Generations? Youth Bulges and Political Violence. New York: United Nations Department of Economics and Social Affairs, Expert Paper No. 2012/1.
  • Zald, M. N., Ash, R. 1966. Social Movement Organizations: Growth, Decay and Change, “Social Forces”, 44, pp. 327–341.
  • Zimmermann, E. 2015. The Arab Spring in Comparative Revolutionary Analysis: Implications of the Arabellion for security policy, “International Relations and Diplomacy”, 3(3), pp. 180–191.
  • Zimmermann, E. 2013. Der Arabische Frühling in vergleichender Revolutionsanalyse, “Zeitschrift für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung”, 2 (2), pp. 209–245.
  • Zimmermann, E. 1990. On the Outcomes of Revolutions: Some Preliminary Considerations, “Sociological Theory”, 8, pp. 33–47.
  • Zimmermann, E. 1999. Ressourcenmobilisierung und Gewalt, “Forschungsjournal Neue Soziale Bewegungen” 11, no. 4, pp. 55–67.
  • Zimmermann, E. 1989. Political Unrest in Western Europe: Trends and Prospects, “West European Politics”, 12, pp. 179–196.
  • Zimmermann, E. 1987. Political Violence and Other Strategies of Opposition Movements, “Journal of International Affairs”, 40, pp. 325–351.
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.ojs-doi-10_17951_k_2015_22_1_31
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.