2015 | 13 | 1 |
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O lubelskich kamienicach czynszowych z początków XX wieku na przykładzie tych, które projektował Ksawery Drozdowski

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Architect Ksawery Drozdowski (b. 1860 – d. after 1922), after studying at Petersburg’s Institute of Civil Engineers, was assigned as an engineering and building administration employee to the Lublin region. From 1901 to 1914 he held the post of Assistant Civil Engineer/ Architect for the Lublin guberniya (province). Drozdowski was able to reconcile his duties as a civil servant with his private architectural designing, the outcome of which was many buildings, including the tenements in the city center. The most impressive of them are at Ewangelicka St. no. 6 and Chopin St. nos. 11 and 15. The tenement houses like those designed by Drozdowski were a typical element of buildings in large European cities in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Constructing them was to satisfy the need for providing apartments for the constantly growing numbers of inhabitants. When Drozdowski worked in Lublin, it was one of the largest urban centers in the Kingdom of Poland. Tenement houses were built fi rst of all for commercial reasons, as houses intended to generate profi t from rents. Since rent depended on the standard of the building, care was taken to make it fully modern, equipped with all the facilities available at that time. That is why in the early 20th century most of the tenement houses, at least those in Lublin’s city center, had electric light, and plumbing and sewage systems. The apartments in the buildings differed in standards. The luxury ones, with several rooms, were located at the front. Poorer fl ats occupied basements, attics, and the back annexes. The apartments at the front were well–lit, equipped with all the conveniences (bathrooms with baths, toilets) and usually had two entrances (the elegant one, leading from the main staircase, and the kitchen entrance, accessible from the staircase in the annex). Those for the poorer occupants had smaller fl oor areas and were of noticeably lower standard. Many of them had no bathrooms and toilets, and the windows, almost always looking into the yard, did not provide adequate sunlight. For the investor investing in the construction of a tenement house, it was important that his property was seen as an elegant and luxury building. That is why special attention was paid to rich elevations seen from the street. They were treated as the pride of the building, and had a rich architectural setting. What was typical was that although the front elevations made the appearance of the tenement houses individualistic, their interiors had very similar functional/spatial solutions. Characteristic was also the contrast between the rich details used in decorations of the front elevations and the economy of the architectural setting of the yard and rear elevations.
Brak streszczenia w języku polskim.
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